TABLE 1

Underinsurance by Type of Insurance Among Currently Insured CSHCN in the United States, 2005–2006

ParameterAll Currently Insured Children, aOR (95% CI)Public Insurance, aOR (95% CI)Private Insurance, aOR (95% CI)
State
    Alabama1.60 (1.18–2.18)1.31 (0.67–2.55)1.72 (1.19–2.47)
    Alaska1.59 (1.19–2.12)1.13 (0.58–2.22)1.87 (1.31–2.67)
    Arizona1.89 (1.42–2.50)1.15 (0.60–2.22)2.57 (1.84–3.60)
    Arkansas1.74 (1.28–2.36)1.17 (0.61–2.26)2.53 (1.75–3.66)
    California1.95 (1.45–2.62)2.80 (1.47–5.34)1.90 (1.32–2.73)
    Colorado1.96 (1.47–2.62)2.35 (1.18–4.70)2.10 (1.50–2.95)
    Connecticut1.80 (1.35–2.40)1.25 (0.62–2.56)2.04 (1.47–2.83)
    Delaware1.75 (1.31–2.35)1.40 (0.71–2.76)2.22 (1.57–3.13)
    District of Columbia1.79 (1.30–2.48)1.30 (0.67–2.52)2.63 (1.79–3.87)
    Florida1.88 (1.40–2.53)2.22 (1.19–4.15)1.92 (1.33–2.77)
    Georgia1.78 (1.32–2.41)1.34 (0.68–2.64)2.36 (1.66–3.37)
    Hawaii1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
    Idaho1.91 (1.44–2.55)1.49 (0.79–2.81)2.16 (1.52–3.07)
    Illinois2.08 (1.55–2.79)1.24 (0.63–2.45)2.42 (1.70–3.43)
    Indiana1.70 (1.26–2.29)0.98 (0.49–1.97)2.27 (1.61–3.21)
    Iowa1.37 (1.03–1.83)0.92 (0.45–1.86)1.88 (1.34–2.64)
    Kansas1.60 (1.19–2.15)0.93 (0.46–1.88)2.07 (1.47–2.92)
    Kentucky1.73 (1.28–2.32)1.12 (0.57–2.19)2.59 (1.83–3.68)
    Louisiana1.38 (1.00–1.91)1.07 (0.56–2.03)1.66 (1.09–2.51)
    Maine1.17 (0.87–1.57)0.89 (0.46–1.70)1.34 (0.93–1.94)
    Maryland1.61 (1.19–2.18)1.64 (0.80–3.37)1.71 (1.20–2.42)
    Massachusetts1.71 (1.27–2.30)1.90 (0.95–3.83)1.82 (1.28–2.59)
    Michigan1.93 (1.45–2.56)1.76 (0.94–3.32)2.29 (1.63–3.23)
    Minnesota1.52 (1.13–2.03)1.44 (0.66–3.15)1.73 (1.23–2.44)
    Mississippi2.02 (1.50–2.72)1.58 (0.86–2.90)2.45 (1.69–3.55)
    Missouri1.60 (1.20–2.13)1.67 (0.89–3.13)1.85 (1.32–2.60)
    Montana1.71 (1.28–2.28)1.16 (0.58–2.29)2.33 (1.65–3.29)
    Nebraska1.55 (1.16–2.07)1.34 (1.04–1.74)2.03 (1.45–2.85)
    Nevada1.97 (1.47–2.63)2.05 (1.56–2.69)2.28 (1.61–3.21)
    New Hampshire1.32 (0.99–1.77)0.88 (0.43–1.81)1.63 (1.16–2.30)
    New Jersey2.10 (1.57–2.81)2.04 (0.98–4.24)2.35 (1.68–3.30)
    New Mexico1.85 (1.40–2.44)1.48 (0.83–2.67)2.16 (1.53–3.07)
    New York1.90 (1.42–2.54)1.40 (0.75–2.63)2.31 (1.63–3.27)
    North Carolina1.64 (1.23–2.18)0.52 (0.26–1.03)2.74 (1.95–3.85)
    North Dakota1.28 (0.96–1.71)1.17 (0.58–2.34)1.44 (1.02–2.03)
    Ohio1.66 (1.25–2.21)1.13 (0.58–2.19)2.17 (1.54–3.05)
    Oklahoma1.64 (1.23–2.18)1.39 (0.76–2.57)1.84 (1.30–2.61)
    Oregon1.47 (1.10–1.96)1.17 (0.60–2.29)1.76 (1.25–2.48)
    Pennsylvania1.54 (1.15–2.07)1.35 (0.71–2.56)1.83 (1.26–2.66)
    Rhode Island1.24 (0.93–1.66)0.68 (0.34–1.35)1.83 (1.30–2.58)
    South Carolina1.90 (1.43–2.54)1.00 (0.53–1.88)2.76 (1.93–3.93)
    South Dakota1.52 (1.14–2.02)0.93 (0.47–1.81)1.84 (1.30–2.59)
    Tennessee1.39 (1.03–1.87)1.16 (0.59–2.27)1.70 (1.19–2.41)
    Texas1.76 (1.31–2.36)1.64 (0.87–3.12)1.96 (1.38–2.77)
    Utah1.81 (1.36–2.39)2.49 (1.23–5.05)1.93 (1.39–2.68)
    Vermont1.38 (1.02–1.87)0.94 (0.50–1.77)1.72 (1.18–2.51)
    Virginia1.66 (1.24–2.22)1.54 (0.75–3.15)1.87 (1.34–2.62)
    Washington1.44 (1.07–1.92)1.27 (0.66–2.44)1.72 (1.21–2.43)
    West Virginia1.76 (1.31–2.37)1.63 (0.87–3.06)2.05 (1.42–2.95)
    Wisconsin1.88 (1.41–2.50)1.44 (0.70–2.96)2.44 (1.75–3.41)
    Wyoming2.01 (1.51–2.67)1.22 (0.64–2.32)2.85 (2.02–4.02)
Child's age, y
    0–51.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
    6–111.20 (1.06–1.35)1.36 (1.05–1.77)1.12 (0.97–1.30)
    12–171.13 (1.00–1.27)1.56 (1.20–2.03)1.01 (0.87–1.18)
Race/ethnicity
    Hispanic1.10 (0.93–1.29)1.31 (0.97–1.76)1.04 (0.84–1.29)
    Non-Hispanic black0.99 (0.87–1.14)1.36 (1.09–1.70)0.85 (0.70–1.04)
    Non-Hispanic white1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
    Non-Hispanic multiple or other race1.06 (0.90–1.24)1.19 (0.88–1.59)1.18 (0.96–1.44)
FPLa
    <100%1.76 (1.48–2.09)2.03 (1.45–2.85)
    100% to <200%1.54 (1.35–1.76)1.82 (1.55–2.13)
    200% to <400%1.35 (1.22–1.50)1.36 (1.21–1.52)
    ≥400%1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
Gender
    Male0.97 (0.90–1.05)0.97 (0.82–1.15)0.98 (0.89–1.08)
    Female1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
Family structure
    2-Parent, step0.95 (0.82–1.09)1.12 (0.84–1.48)0.93 (0.79–1.09)
    Single mother1.05 (0.95–1.17)1.02 (0.83–1.25)1.10 (0.97–1.25)
    Other1.20 (1.00–1.43)1.30 (0.93–1.81)1.25 (0.99–1.58)
    2-Parent, biological or adopted1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
Primary language in household
    Non–English speaking1.22 (0.93–1.61)1.28 (0.88–1.88)1.02 (0.66–1.58)
    English speaking1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
Impact of condition on activities
    Usually/always/great deal1.60 (1.43–1.79)1.54 (1.21–1.94)1.69 (1.47–1.95)
    Some/very little1.46 (1.33–1.60)1.39 (1.11–1.73)1.49 (1.34–1.66)
    Never1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
Type of insurance coverageb
    Private only1.77 (1.55–2.03)
    Both private and public1.19 (1.01–1.40)
    Other comprehensive3.01 (2.15–4.22)
    Public only1.00 (Reference)
Parents cut back or stopped working as a result of child's condition
    Yes1.94 (1.76–2.14)1.63 (1.36–1.95)2.15 (1.89–2.43)
    No1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
  • Poverty level was not included as a covariate for the analyses by public insurance because of its strong correlation with the outcome. aOR indicates adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

  • a Based on the US Department of Health and Human Services 2005 Poverty Guidelines.

  • b Type of insurance coverage was not included as a covariate for the analyses by public and private insurance.