TABLE 1

Chandler Classification of Orbital Complications of Sinusitis, a Clinical Description

Chandler ClassStageClinical Description and Definition
IInflammatory edemaEyelid edema and erythema
Normal extraocular movement
Normal visual acuity
IIOrbital cellulitisDiffuse edema of orbital contents without discrete abscess formation
IIISubperiosteal abscessCollection of purulent exudatea beneath periosteum of lamina papyracea
Displacement of globe downward/laterally
IVOrbital abscessPurulent collection within orbita
Proptosis
Chemosis
Ophthalmoplegia
Decreased vision
VCavernous sinus thrombosisBilateral eye findings
Prostration
Meningismus
  • a The radiographic correlation of a subperiosteal or orbital abscess seen with CT is a contrast-enhancing mass in the extraconal/intraconal space, possibly with areas of cavitation, because purulence cannot be determined with CT scanning.