TABLE 2

Sample Characteristics and Intervention Components for Studies Included in the Meta-analysis

Author (Year)Sample CharacteristicsIntervention Characteristics
n; Age Range, y; Nonwhite, %; Male, %LocationTargets a High-Risk GroupSettingTelevision-Control Device UsedTheory Used in ProgramIntervention ComponentsBehavior(s) Targeted for Change
Angelbuer91 (1998)6; 5–11; unclear; >50%United StatesYes, screenHomeYesOtherB, C, INFO, M, RTelevision
Chin et al44 (2008)821; 12–18; unclear; ≤50%NetherlandsNoSchoolNoTRA/TPB, otherCU, G, INFO, M, PAST, consumption of SSB, dietary behavior, active commuting to school
Dennison et al42 (2004)77; <5; ≤50%; ≤50%United StatesNoSchoolNoINFO, RST, snacking while watching television
Eisenmann et al45 (2008)20; 5–11; unclear; ≤50%United StatesNoHomeNoESTINFO, M, RST, PA, dietary behavior
Epstein et al43 (2008)67; 5–11; ≤50%; >50%United StatesYes, weight; yes, screenHomeYesB, INFO, RST
Faith et al112 (2001)10; 5–11; unclear; >50%United StatesYes, weight; yes, screenHomeNoOtherContingentTelevision (contingent on PA)
Ford et al92 (2002)28; 5–11; >50%; ≤50%United StatesNoOtherYesSCTB, INFOST, eating breakfast and dinner with television on, PA
Foster et al47 (2008)689; 5–11; >50%; ≤50%United StatesNoSchoolNoOtherINFOTelevision, dietary behaviors, PA
Golan et al93 (1998)50; 5–11; unclear; ≤50%IsraelYes, weightUnclearNoINFOTelevision, nutritional behaviors, PA, eating while standing, in front of television, when stressed, while performing other activities
Goldfield et al46 (2006)30; 5–11; unclear; ≤50%CanadaYes, weight; yes, screenHomeYesOtherR, MST, snack intake while watching television, PA
Gortmaker et al94 (1999)1225; 12–18; ≤50%; >50%United StatesNoSchoolNoSCT, BCTCU, G, INFO, MTelevision, nutritional behaviors, PA
Gortmaker et al95 (1999)336; 5–11; >50%; ≤50%United StatesNoSchoolNoCU, INFOTelevision, nutritional behaviors, PA
Harrison et al96 (2006)312; 5–11; unclear; >50%IrelandNoSchoolNoSCTB, CU, G, INFO, MST, PA
Jason97 (1987)2; 12–18; ≤50%; >50%United StatesYes, screenHomeYesRTelevision
Jason et al98 (1993)2; 5–11; ≤50%; ≤50%United StatesNoHomeYesBST
Jones et al113 (2008)606; 12–18; ≤50%; ≤50%United StatesNoSchoolNoSCT, TTMCU, INFOST, PA
Kipping et al109 (2008)323; 5–11; unclear; ≤50%EnglandNoSchoolNoSCT, TTMCU, INFO, MST, nutritional behaviors, PA
Mauriello et al114 (2006)655; 12–18; ≤50%; ≤50%United StatesNoUnclearNoSCT, BCTStageTelevision, nutritional behavior, PA
McCanna110 (1989)5; 5–11; ≤50%; ≤50%United StatesNoHomeYesTTMTelevision, alternative activities (homework, reading, playing, chores, sports)
Nemet et al99 (2005)46; 5–11; unclear; >50%IsraelYes, weightUnclearNoINFO, PAST, nutritional behavior, PA
Niemeyer100 (1988)235; not provided; unclear; unclearUnited StatesNoSchoolNoB, MTelevision, reading
Nova et al101 (2001)140; 5–11; unclear; >50%ItalyYes, weightOtherNoINFOST, PA, nutritional behavior
Robinson102 (1999)192; 5–11; unclear; >50%United StatesNoSchoolYesB, CU, INFO, MST, eating meals and snacking in front of the television
Robinson et al103 (2003)60; 5–11; ≤50%; ≤50%United StatesYes, weightOtherNoSCTB, G, INFO, PAST, eating breakfast and dinner with the television on, nutritional behaviors, PA
Robinson et al104 (2006)181; 5–11; unclear; >50%United StatesNoSchoolYesSCTB, CU, INFO, M, RST
Salmon et al105 (2008)119; 5–11; unclear; ≤50%AustraliaNoSchoolNoSCTB, C, CU, INFO, M, RST, PA
Sege et al106 (1997)243; <5; unclear; ≤50%United StatesNoOtherNoSCT, BCTINFOTelevision
Simon et al107 (2006)954; 12–18; unclear; ≤50%FranceNoOtherNoINFO, PA, PolicyST, PA
Weintraub et al111 (2008)21; 5–11; >50%; unclearUnited StatesYes, weightSchoolNoESTPAST, PA
  • Theories used in program development: BCT, behavioral choice theory; EST, ecological systems theory; SCT, social cognitive theory; TRA/TPB, theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior; TTM, transtheoretical model. Intervention components: B, budget; C, contract; Contingent, television use contingent on another behavior; CU, incorporated into curriculum; G, goal setting; INFO, provision of information; M, monitoring of behavior; PA, physical activity opportunities; Policy, study included a policy change component; R, rewards/reinforcements; Stage, the intervention is based on the individual's stage of readiness. Targets a high-risk sample: Yes, weight, the intervention targets overweight children; Yes, screen, the intervention targets children that exceed a screen time recommendations. Behavior(s) targeted for change: ST, screen time; television, television only; SSB, sugar-sweetened beverages; PA, physical activity; nutritional behaviors, dietary habits (eg, fat and calorie intake, fruit and vegetable consumption).