TABLE 1

Characteristics of Fatal and Nonfatal Submersion Events in the United States (2001–2009) for Children Younger Than 12 Years

Fatal (n = 209)aNonfatal (n = 35)aOverall (N = 244)a
Age, y
    Mean (SD)2.3 (1.6)2.1 (1.4)2.2 (1.6)
    Minimum, median, maximum0.1, 2.0, 11.00.7, 2.0, 8.00.1, 2.0, 11.0
    Mode1.01.0, 2.01.0
Gender, n (%)
    Male122 (58)16 (46)138 (56)
    Female87 (42)19 (54)106 (44)
Submersion location, n (%)
    Subject's home129 (72)19 (86)148 (73)
    Relative's home30 (16)1 (5)31 (15)
    Friend's home6 (3)0 (0)6 (3)
    Neighbor's home12 (7)2 (9)14 (7)
    Babysitter's home/day care center4 (2)0 (0)4 (2)
    Total181 (100)22 (100)203 (100)
    Unknown28 (NA)13 (NA)41 (NA)
Pool height, n (%)
    ≤18 in25 (37)7 (70)32 (41)
    19–36 in25 (37)2 (20)27 (35)
     >36 in18 (26)1 (10)19 (24)
    Total68 (100)10 (100)78 (100)
    Unknown141 (NA)25 (NA)166 (NA)
Water depth, ft
    n39544
    Mean (SD)2.1 (1.2)1.5 (1.5)2.0 (1.2)
    Minimum, median, maximum0.2, 2.0, 4.00.2, 1.0, 4.00.2, 2.0, 4.0
    Mode4.00.2, 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, 4.04.0
Supervision, n (%)
    Adult, ≥18 y35 (24)7 (50)42 (26)
    Adult, ≥18 y, documented lapse in supervision24 (16)3 (22)27 (17)
    Child, <18 y22 (15)0 (0)22 (13)
    Child, <18 y, documented lapse in supervision1 (1)0 (0)1 (1)
    Babysitter/day care provider4 (3)1 (7)5 (3)
    Babysitter/day care provider, documented lapse in supervision1 (1)0 (0)1 (1)
    Unsupervised59 (40)3 (21)62 (39)
    Total146 (100)14 (100)160 (100)
    Unknown63 (NA)21 (NA)84 (NA)
Submersion duration, n (%)b
    <1 min0 (0)2 (50)2 (4)
    1–5 min14 (32)2 (50)16 (33)
    6–10 min11 (24)0 (0)11 (22)
    11–20 min17 (38)0 (0)17 (35)
    30 min1 (2)0 (0)1 (2)
    2 h1 (2)0 (0)1 (2)
    >2 h1 (2)0 (0)1 (2)
    Total45 (100)4 (100)49 (100)
    Unknown164 (NA)31 (NA)195 (NA)
  • NA indicates not applicable.

  • a Unknowns were not included in percentage calculations.

  • b Defined as the amount of time elapsed between the time the subject was last seen until the subject was discovered in the pool.