TABLE 1

Comparison of Pediatric Ingestions During the Pandemic (2020) Versus Prepandemic Period (2017–2019)

Year, n (%)
Characteristic2017–2019; 3-year Average2020P
All Ingestionsn = 2 757 796; n = 919 265n = 861 626
 Age, y<.001
  ≤5712 708 (77.5)670 352 (77.8)
  6–1287 006 (9.5)76 403 (8.9)
  13–19119 551 (13.0)114 871 (13.3)
 Sex<.001
  Male470 376 (51.2)435 982 (50.6)
  Female446 465 (48.6)422 762 (49.1)
  Unknown2424 (0.3)2882 (0.3)
 Reason<.001
  Unintentional813 237 (88.5)758 422 (88.0)
  Intentional94 560 (10.3)92 918 (10.8)
  Other11 468 (1.2)10 286 (1.2)
 Exposure site<.001
  Residence882 457 (96.0)843 935 (97.9)
  School17 554 (1.9)3475 (0.4)
  Other19 255 (2.1)14 216 (1.6)
 Management site<.001
  Managed on-site (non-HCF)713 205 (77.6)687 181 (79.8)
  Patient already in or en route to HCF when PCC called146 284 (15.9)125 478 (14.6)
  Patient was referred by PCC to HCF44 432 (4.8)43 642 (5.1)
  Other15 344 (1.7)5 325 (0.6)
 Outcomea<.001
  No effect208 499 (22.7)186 261 (21.6)
  Minor effect86 566 (9.4)84 283 (9.8)
  Clinically significant33 187 (3.6)35 906 (4.2)
   Death69 (0.0)81 (0.23)
  Other591 013 (64.3)555 218 (64.4)
Ingestion managed at a HCFn = 438 853; n = 146 284n = 125 478
 Age, y<.001
  ≤562 619 (42.8)45 728 (36.4)
  6–1211 151 (7.6)9980 (8.0)
  13–1972 515 (49.6)69 770 (55.6)
 Sex<.001
  Male59 676 (40.8)47 192 (37.6)
  Female86 399 (59.1)78 106 (62.2)
  Unknown210 (0.1)180 (0.1)
 Reason<.001
  Unintentional72 067 (49.3)52 714 (42.0)
  Intentional70 910 (48.5)69 838 (55.7)
  Other3307 (2.3)2926 (2.3)
 Outcomea<.001
  No effect50 487 (34.5)38 966 (31.1)
  Minor effect41 986 (28.7)38 382 (30.6)
  Clinically significant28 679 (19.6)30 365 (24.2)
   Death61 (0.0)71 (0.23)
  Other25 132 (17.2)17 765 (14.2)
 Disposition<.001
  Hospitalized54 983 (37.6)54 674 (43.6)
   ICU15 842 (10.8)14 591 (26.7)
  Treated and released85 921 (58.7)66 200 (52.8)
  Other5380 (3.7)4604 (3.7)
  • HCF, health care facility; PCC, poison control center; —, not applicable.

  • a No effect: no signs or symptoms.4 Minor effect: minimally bothersome symptoms; self-limited; resolved without intervention (eg, self-limited gastrointestinal symptoms).4 Clinically significant outcomes include moderate effect or major effect or death. Moderate effect: systemic symptoms requiring intervention; not life-threatening (eg, brief seizure readily resolved with treatment; high fever).4 Major effect: life-threating symptoms (eg, status epilepticus, respiratory failure requiring intubation).4 Other: cases that were not followed or unable to be followed to a known outcome but judged as likely nontoxic exposures, exposures with minimal clinical effects, or exposure deemed not responsible to the effect.4