Table 2

Critical Knowledge Gaps Due to Insufficient Pediatric Data

What is the optimal method of medication delivery during CPR: IO or IV?
What is the optimal method to determine body weight for medication administration?
In what time frame should the first dose of epinephrine be administered during pulseless cardiac arrest?
With what frequency should subsequent doses of epinephrine be administered?
With what frequency should epinephrine be administered in infants and children during CPR who are awaiting ECMO cannulation?
Are alternative compression techniques (cough CPR, fist pacing, interposed abdominal compression CPR) more effective alternatives to CPR?
With what frequency should the rhythm be checked during CPR?
What is the optimal method of airway management during OHCA—bag- mask ventilation, supraglottic airway, or endotracheal tube?
What is the optimal Fio2 to administer during CPR?
What is the optimal ventilation rate during CPR in patients with or without an advanced airway? Is it age dependent?
What is the optimal chest compression rate during CPR? Is it age dependent?
What are the optimal blood pressure targets during CPR? Are they age dependent?
Can echocardiography improve CPR quality or outcomes from cardiac arrest?
Are there specific situations in which advanced airway placement is beneficial or harmful in OHCA?
What is the appropriate timing of advanced airway placement in IHCA?
What is the role of ECPR for patients with OHCA and IHCA due to noncardiac causes?
What is the optimal timing and dosing of defibrillation for VF/pVT?
What clinical tools can be used to help in the decision to terminate pediatric IHCA and OHCA resuscitation?
What is the optimal blood pressure target during the post–cardiac arrest period?
Should seizure prophylaxis be administered post cardiac arrest?
Does the treatment of postarrest convulsive and nonconvulsive seizure improve outcomes?
What are the reliable methods for postarrest prognostication?
What rehabilitation therapies and follow-up should be provided to improve outcomes post arrest?
What are the most effective and safe medications for adenosine-refractory SVT?
What is the appropriate age and setting to transition from (1) neonatal resuscitation protocols to pediatric resuscitation protocols and (2) from pediatric resuscitation protocols to adult resuscitation protocols?
  • CPR indicates cardiopulmonary resuscitation; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; ECPR, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation; Fio2, fraction of inspired oxygen; IHCA, in-hospital cardiac arrest; IO, intraosseous; IV, intravenous; OHCA, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; pVT, pulseless ventricular tachycardia; SVT, supraventricular tachycardia; and VF, ventricular fibrillation.