TABLE 4

Cause of Death by CPS Involvement, Number, Incidence Rate (per 100 000 Person-Years), and IRR: Crude Estimates

Major Causes of DeathaNo CPS ContactbCPS ContactcIRR (95% CI) for CPS Versus No CPSP
No. of DeathsIncidence RatedNo. of DeathsIncidence Ratee
Suicide or intentional self-harm (codes X60–X84, Y20)1546.319017.772.82 (2.15–3.68)<.001
Poisonings, alcohol, drugs, other substances, and mental illness (of unknown intent) (codes F00–F99, F20–F99, R45, T36–T65, X40–X45, Y10–Y19, and Y48)f602.466011.864.82 (3.31–7.01)<.001
Auto crash and other unintentional injuries (codes V01–V99) and no record of substances or mental illnessg2048.356011.851.42 (1.05–1.90).010
Natural causes (chapters I to IV, VI to XVIII, XXI, and XX, with no cause-of-death codes in chapters V, XIX, or XX)2048.358416.591.99 (1.52–2.57)<.001
Missing401.63234.542.77 (1.58–4.74)<.001
All deaths66227.1131862.802.32 (2.02–2.65)<.001
  • a ICD-10, see ref 26.

  • b No CPS involvement to age 16 years.

  • c Any CPS contact to age 16 years.

  • d Per 100 000 person-years (person-years of observation from the 16th birthday to May 31, 2019, is 2 442 010 in those with no CPS contact, taking account of premature deaths).

  • e Per 100 000 person-years (person-years of observation from the 16th birthday to May 31, 2019, is 506 419 in those with some CPS contact, taking account of premature deaths).

  • f Including assault (codes X85–Y09 and Y35) if substances are involved.

  • g Including assault if there is no involvement of substances.