TABLE 1

CPS Categories Adopted for This Study to Indicate CM Exposure

CM ExposureDescription
Unexposed group
 1No CMNo CPS involvement: no record with SA DCP, categorized as unexposed to CM and taken as the reference category
Exposed groups
 2NOCIndividual is the subject of NOC notification(s) only. Reports had inadequate information or did not reach CM concern thresholds.
 3Other notificationIndividual is the subject of notification(s) type(s) AAR, NGI, ROU, extrafamilial (referred to police as a criminal matter), or DNA but not CPM (see below) and with no record of investigation or OOHC.
 4CPM notificationIndividual is the subject of CPM notification(s), indicating high suspicion of risk of serious CM-related harm, classified as “screened in.” No record of investigation or OOHC.
 5InvestigationInvestigation(s) recorded; no record of substantiation or OOHC
 6SubstantiationSubstantiation(s) of abuse or neglect recorded and never placed in OOHC
 7OOHC before age 3At least 1 OOHC placement record and first entered care before their third birthday
 8OOHC from age 3At least 1 OOHC placement record and first entered care on or after their third birthday
  • AAR, adolescent at risk; DNA, divert notifier action (child at risk but being looked after by another agency so not followed-up by Department for Child Protection); NGI, no grounds for intervention (historic threat no longer current); ROU, report on unborn (extreme child protection concerns, such as major substance use disorder in expectant mother), referred to other agencies.