TABLE 1

Descriptive Statistics for All Variables for Cases, Noncases in the Logistic Regression Analysis, and Matched Controls in the Case-Control Analysis

Cases (n = 427)Noncases (n = 56 908)Matched Controls (n = 21 350)
Exposure, %
 No52.249.151.9
 Yes47.850.948.1
Race and/or ethnicity, %a
 American Indian or Alaskan native4.61.92.0
 Asian American2.13.53.7
 African American or Black23.414.714.8
 Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander0.90.50.5
 White54.372.171.7
 Prefer to not answer (race)18.79.69.6
 Hispanic, Latinx, or Spanish origin34.218.618.2
 Prefer to not answer (ethnicity)2.82.12.1
Gender, %
 Female96.097.097.0
 Male3.32.32.3
 Nonbinary0.00.20.2
 Prefer to not answer0.70.50.5
Age, y, mean (SD)45.71 (12.49)45.97 (12.30)46.19 (12.31)
Child care type, %
 Center basedb65.871.472.2
 Family based or home based34.228.627.8
Director or owner of center-based care, %
 No78.773.474.2
 Yes21.326.625.8
Personal COVID-19 health precautions, mean (SD)
 Masks, hand-washing, and/or distancing, 0–32.86 (0.40)2.77 (0.52)2.80 (0.49)
 Avoiding social interactions, 0–32.34 (0.89)2.11 (1.04)2.13 (1.03)
 Avoiding high-risk situations and travel, 0–42.64 (0.74)2.71 (0.67)2.71 (0.66)
County COVID-19 cumulative death rate, %c
 Low (0–0.0561 deaths per 1000)24.633.631.2
 Moderate (0.0564–0.2180 deaths per 1000)24.134.233.0
 High (0.2184–13.5248 deaths per 1000)51.332.335.8
County household median income, %c
 Low ($13 242–$54 976)27.633.632.4
 Moderate ($54 979–$65 010)36.332.333.8
 High ($65 027–$136 268)36.134.233.8
  • a Race and/or ethnicity options were “check all that apply”; resulting proportions may not add to 100%.

  • b Center-based child care included (1) for-profit centers (32.5%), (2) nonprofit centers (27.4%), (3) school-based centers (16.7%), (4) Head Start centers (13.9%), (5) drop-in centers (2.0%), and (6) other centers (7.4%).

  • c County-level data were trichotomized into proportionally equal thirds.