TABLE 3

Cox Proportional Hazards Models for Risk of Death From Age 16 Years, by CPS Involvement: Crude and Adjusted Analyses

UnivariableMultivariablea
HR (95% CI)PaHR (95% CI)P
Child attributes
CPS contact (reference: no CPS contact)
 NOC1.28 (0.87–1.90).2111.31 (0.88–1.95).180
 Other notification(s)1.55 (1.09–2.21).0161.71 (1.18–2.48).004
 CPM2.35 (1.78–3.11)<.0012.35 (1.75–3.14)<.001
 Investigation2.20 (1.73–2.81)<.0012.09 (1.62–2.70)<.001
 Substantiation2.88 (2.24–3.71)<.0012.61 (1.99–3.43)<.001
 OOHC from age 3 y5.77 (4.45–7.48)<.0014.67 (3.52–6.20)<.001
 OOHC before age 3 y2.35 (1.39–4.00).0021.75 (0.98–3.14).060
Birth year (reference: born 1986–1991)
 1992–19970.89 (0.77–1.03).1270.84 (0.71–1.00).047
 1998–20030.73 (0.56–0.96).0250.78 (0.19–3.14).725
Sex (reference: female)
 Male2.17 (1.90–2.48)<.0012.17 (1.89–2.50)<.001
Birth outcome (reference: discharged at <28 d)
 Still in hospital at 28 d2.54 (1.90–3.39)<.0012.24 (1.66–3.03)<.001
Mother’s characteristics at child’s birth
Age (reference: ≥21 y)
 <21 y1.75 (1.47–2.10)<.0011.15 (0.94–1.42).175
Marital status (reference: married or de facto)
 Not married or de facto1.53 (1.31–1.79)<.0011.03 (0.86–1.23).769
Employed (ref)
 Not employed1.20 (1.04–1.40).0141.07 (0.89–1.28).483
IRSD (reference: Q4–Q5 least disadvantaged)
 Q2–Q31.24 (1.06–1.45).0081.13 (0.96–1.32).144
 Q11.36 (1.15–1.60)<.0011.07 (0.90–1.27).433
Smoking status (reference: not smoking)
 Smoking1.60 (0.97–2.65).0681.18 (0.71–1.97).523
  • a Adjusted for child’s birth year, sex, birth outcome, Aboriginal status, and mother’s age and marital status, whether employed, smoking status, and IRSD at the time of the child’s birth.