TABLE 2

Multivariable Associations of the Sleep Curtailment Score With Anthropometric Outcomes at Mid-Childhood

Anthropometric Outcomes and Multivariable Models a Sleep Curtailment Score: 0 = Maximum Curtailed Sleep to 13 = Never Curtailed Sleep b
0 to 45 to 78 to 910 to 1112 to 13Continuous score, 0 to 13
BMI z scoreEffect Estimate (95% Confidence Interval)
 Model 1. Child age and gender0.80 (0.45 to 1.14)0.36 (0.14 to 0.58)0.27 (0.06 to 0.47)0.13 (−0.02 to 0.29)0.0 (ref)−0.07 (−0.10 to −0.05)
 Model 2. Model 1 + SES0.53 (0.19 to 0.88)0.25 (0.03 to 0.47)0.14 (−0.06 to 0.35)0.09 (−0.06 to 0.24)0.0 (ref)−0.05 (−0.08 to −0.02)
 Model 3. Model 2 + TV0.48 (0.13 to 0.83)0.22 (0.00 to 0.44)0.13 (−0.08 to 0.33)0.08 (−0.07 to 0.23)0.0 (ref)−0.05 (−0.07 to −0.02)
SS+TR skinfold thickness, mm
 Model 1. Child age and gender7.57 (4.12 to 11.02)3.15 (1.12 to 5.19)2.21 (0.34 to 4.07)1.17 (−0.24 to 2.58)0.0 (ref)−0.66 (−0.88 to −0.44)
 Model 2. Model 1 + SES4.90 (1.42 to 8.37)2.00 (−0.05 to 4.06)1.09 (−0.77 to 2.94)0.72 (−0.63 to 2.07)0.0 (ref)−0.43 (−0.67 to −0.19)
 Model 3. Model 2 + TV4.22 (0.72 to 7.72)1.64 (−0.41 to 3.69)0.88 (−0.96 to 2.73)0.57 (−0.79 to 1.92)0.0 (ref)−0.37 (−0.60 to −0.13)
DXA total FMI, kg/m2
 Model 1. Child age and gender1.36 (0.66 to 2.05)0.47 (0.08 to 0.87)0.37 (0.00 to 0.74)0.22 (−0.06 to 0.51)0.0 (ref)−0.11 (−0.15 to −0.07)
 Model 2. Model 1 + SES0.88 (0.18 to 1.57)0.28 (−0.12 to 0.69)0.18 (−0.19 to 0.54)0.15 (−0.13 to 0.42)0.0 (ref)−0.07 (−0.12 to −0.02)
 Model 3. Model 2 + TV0.72 (0.02 to 1.42)0.20 (−0.20 to0.60)0.13 (−0.23 to 0.49)0.11 (−0.17 to 0.39)0.0 (ref)−0.06 (−0.10 to −0.01)
DXA trunk FMI, kg/m2
 Model 1. Child age and gender0.63 (0.32 to 0.95)0.24 (0.06 to 0.42)0.17 (0.00 to 0.34)0.12 (−0.01 to 0.24)0.0 (ref)−0.05 (−0.07 to −0.03)
 Model 2. Model 1 + SES0.44 (0.13 to 0.75)0.17 (−0.01 to, 0.35)0.09 (−0.07 to 0.26)0.09 (−0.04 to 0.21)0.0 (ref)−0.04 (−0.06 to −0.02)
 Model 3. Model 2 + TV0.36 (0.05 to 0.67)0.13 (−0.05 to 0.31)0.07 (−0.09 to 0.23)0.07 (−0.05 to 0.19)0.0 (ref)−0.03 (−0.05 to −0.01)
Waist circumference, cm
 Model 1. Child age and gender5.64 (2.80 to 8.49)2.39 (0.66 to 4.12)1.79 (0.21 to 3.36)0.93 (−0.25 to 2.11)0.0 (ref)−0.49 (−0.67 to −0.31)
 Model 2. Model 1 + SES4.19 (1.33 to 7.05)1.97 (0.23 to 3.71)1.11 (−0.45 to 2.66)0.68 (−0.45 to 1.81)0.0 (ref)−0.37 (−0.57 to −0.18)
 Model 3. Model 2 + TV3.61 (0.74 to 6.48)1.65 (−0.08 to 3.38)0.93 (−0.62 to 2.48)0.55 (−0.58 to 1.68)0.0 (ref)−0.32 (−0.52 to −0.12)
Hip circumference, cm
 Model 1. Child age and gender5.32 (2.81 to 7.83)2.45 (0.94 to 3.97)1.39 (0.00 to 2.78)1.00 (−0.10 to 2.10)0.0 (ref)−0.47 (−0.63 to −0.31)
 Model 2. Model 1 + SES3.21 (0.68 to 5.73)1.44 (−0.08 to 2.95)0.39 (−0.99 to 1.77)0.61 (−0.46 to 1.68)0.0 (ref)−0.28 (−0.45 to −0.10)
 Model 3. Model 2 + TV2.78 (0.23 to 5.32)1.21 (−0.31 to 2.72)0.26 (−1.12 to 1.64)0.51 (−0.56 to 1.58)0.0 (ref)−0.24 (−0.41 to −0.06)
Obesity (BMI ≥95th vs 5th to 85th percentile)OR (95% CI)
 Model 1. Child age and gender6.85 (3.01 to 15.57)3.15 (1.65 to 6.04)2.30 (1.17 to 4.54)1.43 (0.77 to 2.67)1.0 (ref)0.82 (0.77 to 0.88)
 Model 2. Model 1 + SES3.16 (1.21 to 8.24)2.04 (0.97 to 4.27)1.51 (0.72 to 3.16)1.16 (0.61 to 2.23)1.0 (ref)0.88 (0.81 to 0.96)
 Model 3. Model 2 + TV2.62 (0.99 to 6.97)1.79 (0.84 to .83)1.41 (0.68 to 2.95)1.11 (0.57 to 2.14)1.0 (ref)0.90 (0.83 to 0.98)
  • Data are from 1046 children in Project Viva. DXA, dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry; SES, socioeconomic status; TV, television.

  • a Model 1 is adjusted only for child age and gender. Model 2 is additionally adjusted for maternal age, education, BMI, and parity; household income; and child race/ethnicity. Model 3 is further adjusted for child television viewing at mid-childhood.

  • b The range of the total sleep score is 0 to13, where 0 indicates the maximal sleep curtailment and 13 indicates never having curtailed sleep.