Characteristics of Participants in the CHESS Study (n = 85)

Gender male/female44/41 (52/48)
Ethnicity white/nonwhite65 (76)/20 (24)
Attending a special school42 (49)
On special educational needs register (including Statement of Special Educational Needsa)61 (72)
Primary school46 (54)
Cerebral palsy15 (18)
Mean duration of epilepsy (range)5.93 y (0.24–15.32)
Mean age at time of psychological assessment (range)10.79 y (5.08–15.75)
Age of seizure onset, mo
 0–2426 (31)
 25–6028 (33)
 61+ 31 (36)
EEG85 (100)
Seizures 30 min or longer22 (26)
Current seizure frequencyb
 Weekly or more often32 (38)
 Monthly/yearly38 (45)
 None in past year15 (18)
Number of current AEDs
 04 (5)
 151 (60)
 222 (26)
 38 (9)
ILAE 2010c
 Generalized28 (33)
 Focal57 (67)
 Epileptic spasms3 (4)
 Tonic-clonic20 (24)
 Absence22 (26)
 Myoclonic13 (15)
 Clonic2 (2)
 Tonic4 (5)
 Atonic9 (11)
ILAE 2010 predominant seizure typed
 Generalized31 (37)
 Focal54 (64)
ILAE 2010 etiologyc
 Genetic/presumed genetic32 (38)
 Structural/metabolic26 (31)
 Unknown/undetermined27 (32)
  • All data based on a review of medical notes unless otherwise indicated. All values are n (%) unless otherwise noted.

  • a In the United Kingdom, a Statement of Special Educational Needs is a legal document that sets out a child's special educational needs as assessed by the Local Education Authority. It sets out the educational provision that the authority feels a child needs. Most children on the special educational needs register will not have a statement, as it is reserved for children with the greatest level of need.

  • b Data based on parental report.

  • c Based on classification by pediatric neurologists.

  • d All participants were classified with respect to predominant seizure type (ie, generalized or focal) based on initial classification. Epileptic spasms were included in the generalized group.