TABLE 1

Characteristics of Included Studies

StudyReported EffectSample a SourceFollow-UpSmoking Measure (Additional)Consistent TreatmentAccounted for CDQuality Rating
Biederman et al 2008 52 Null n = 140 males, age 6–17, DSM-IIIProviders10 yND (onset)NoYes b 7
Ercan et al 2012 77 Protective n = 60, ages 7–13, 63% male, comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder/CDClinical (Tx)6 yCurrentYesYes c 6
Faraone et al 2007 78 Null n = 206 adults, ~51% maleCommunity + ProvidersRetrospectiveNDYesNo5
Groenman et al 2013 79 Null N = 388, ages 5–17, 81% maleProviders4 yND (onset)NoYes8
Hammerness et al 2013 44 Protective d n = 154, ages 12–17, 74% male; n = 103 community comparisonClinical (Tx)2 yCurrent/CotinineYesYes7
Huss et al 2008 57 Protective n = 215, ages >15, 92% maleClinical (Tx)RetrospectiveRegular (onset, ND)YesYes c 8
Lambert et al 1998 55 Increased risk n = 221, kindergarten–5th grade, hyperactive, 84% maleCommunity26 yRegular (onset, occasional)NoNo7
Millberger et al 1997 13 Protective n = 128, ages 6–17, DSM-III-R, 84% maleProviders4 yRegularYes e Yes b 6
Molina et al 2013 12 f Protective n = 420 males, age 7–9, ADHD-CClinical (Tx)8 yDailyYesNo8
Monuteaux et al 2007 80 Protective n = 57, age 9–18, 70% maleProviders<6.5 yCurrent/CotinineYesNo7
Whalen et al 2003 81 Protective n = 27, age 14–15, 85% male, parent-reported diagnosisCommunity2CurrentYes e No5
Wilens et al 2008 53 Protective n = 114 females, age 6–18Providers5 yND (onset)NoYes8
Winters et al 2011 54 Increased risk d n = 149, ages 8–10, 81% male, “disruptive” and DSM-III-RCommunity15 yRegularNoYes8
Upadhyaya et al 2005 56 Protective n = 84 college adults, 39% male, ADHD symptoms or diagnosisCommunityRetrospectiveRegularYesYes4
Barkley et al 2003 58 g Null n = 147, ages 4–12, 91% male hyperactiveClinical8 y“Ever tried”NoYes7
Biederman et al 1999 82 g Null n = 75, age 11–17 males, DSM-IIIProviders4 yNDNoYes b 7
Loney et al 2002 83 g Protective n = 219 males, age 4–12, hyperkinetic Reaction or Minimal Brain DysfunctionClinical (Tx)10–17 ySeverity 1–3NoYes8
  • Tx, prospective treatment study.

  • a Sample diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD unless otherwise specified.

  • b CD was independently associated with smoking outcomes.

  • c CD reported to be equal across treatment groups but not controlled in analyses.

  • d CD fully accounted for effects of medication on smoking.

  • e Majority stimulant-treated, though some individuals received alternative pharmacological or behavioral treatment.

  • f Additional unpublished data provided by author.

  • g Qualitative review only, not included in meta-analysis.