TABLE 3

Multivariable Associations of Sleep Curtailment at Each Age Period With Anthropometric Outcomes at Mid-Childhood

Anthropometric Outcomes and Multivariable Models a Curtailed Sleep in Each Age Period
6 mo to 2 y3 to 4 y5 to 7 y
<12≥12<1010 to <11≥11<99 to <10≥10
BMI z scoreEffect Estimate (95% Confidence Interval)
 Model 1. Child age and gender0.25 (0.12 to 0.39)0.0 (ref)0.41 (0.21 to 0.61)0.12 (−0.03 to 0.26)0.0 (ref)0.53 (0.21 to 0.85)0.12 (−0.04 to 0.29)0.0 (ref)
 Model 2. Model 1 + SES0.17 (0.04 to 0.30)0.0 (ref)0.23 (0.02 to 0.43)0.08 (−0.06 to 0.22)0.0 (ref)0.29 (−0.04 to 0.61)0.03 (−0.13 to 0.20)0.0 (ref)
 Model 3. Model 2 + TV0.15 (0.02 to 0.28)0.0 (ref)0.20 (−0.01 to 0.40)0.07 (−0.07 to 0.20)0.0 (ref)0.24 (−0.08 to 0.56)0.01 (−0.15 to 0.18)0.0 (ref)
SS+TR skinfold thickness, mm
 Model 1. Child age and gender2.10 (0.92 to 3.29)0.0 (ref)3.08 (1.14 to 5.03)0.97 (−0.31 to 2.25)0.0 (ref)5.77 (2.53 to 9.01)1.56 (−0.01 to 3.13)0.0 (ref)
 Model 2. Model 1 + SES1.24 (0.06 to 2.43)0.0 (ref)1.23 (−0.75 to 3.20)0.54 (−0.71 to 1.78)0.0 (ref)3.64 (0.27 to 7.02)0.76 (−0.78 to 2.31)0.0 (ref)
 Model 3. Model 2 + TV1.00 (−0.19 to 2.19)0.0 (ref)0.86 (−1.12 to 2.83)0.37 (−0.86 to 1.60)0.0 (ref)3.09 (−0.27 to 6.45)0.54 (−0.99 to 2.07)0.0 (ref)
DXA total FMI, kg/m2
 Model 1. Child age and gender0.39 (0.15 to 0.62)0.0 (ref)0.55 (0.17 to 0.93)0.19 (−0.07 to 0.44)0.0 (ref)0.84 (0.20 to1.47)0.24 (−0.07 to 0.55)0.0 (ref)
 Model 2. Model 1 + SES0.24 (0.01 to 0.48)0.0 (ref)0.23 (−0.16 to 0.62)0.11 (−0.13 to 0.36)0.0 (ref)0.46 (−0.20 to 1.12)0.10 (−0.21 to 0.41)0.0 (ref)
 Model 3. Model 2 + TV0.19 (−0.05 to 0.43)0.0 (ref)0.15 (−0.25 to 0.54)0.07 (−0.17 to 0.32)0.0 (ref)0.33 (−0.32 to 0.98)0.05 (−0.26 to 0.36)0.0 (ref)
DXA trunk FMI, kg/m2
 Model 1. Child age and gender0.19 (0.09 to 0.30)0.0 (ref)0.27 (0.09 to 0.44)0.10 (−0.01 to 0.21)0.0 (ref)0.37 (0.08 to 0.66)0.12 (−0.02 to 0.26)0.0 (ref)
 Model 2. Model 1 + SES0.13 (0.03 to 0.24)0.0 (ref)0.13 (−0.05 to 0.31)0.06 (−0.04 to 0.17)0.0 (ref)0.21 (−0.09 to 0.51)0.06 (−0.08 to 0.20)0.0 (ref)
 Model 3. Model 2 + TV0.11 (0.00 to 0.21)0.0 (ref)0.09 (−0.09 to 0.27)0.05 (−0.06 to 0.15)0.0 (ref)0.15 (−0.15 to 0.44)0.04 (−0.10 to 0.18)0.0 (ref)
Waist circumference, cm
 Model 1. Child age and gender1.70 (0.72 to 2.69)0.0 (ref)2.37 (0.77 to 3.98)0.85 (−0.22 to 1.92)0.0 (ref)3.65 (1.01 to 6.28)0.99 (−0.33 to 2.31)0.0 (ref)
 Model 2. Model 1 + SES1.23 (0.24 to 2.21)0.0 (ref)1.31 (−0.32 to 2.94)0.60 (−0.43 to 1.64)0.0 (ref)2.41 (−0.27 to 5.08)0.56 (−0.76 to 1.88)0.0 (ref)
 Model 3. Model 2 + TV1.02 (0.03 to 2.01)0.0 (ref)0.99 (−0.64 to 2.62)0.46 (−0.57 to 1.48)0.0 (ref)1.92 (−0.72 to 4.56)0.36 (−0.94 to 1.67)0.0 (ref)
Hip circumference, cm
 Model 1. Child age and gender1.45 (0.55 to 2.35)0.0 (ref)2.53 (1.08 to 3.97)0.93 (−0.05 to 1.91)0.0 (ref)4.16 (1.96 to 6.37)0.79 (−0.38 to 1.96)0.0 (ref)
 Model 2. Model 1 + SES0.76 (−0.13 to 1.64)0.0 (ref)1.16 (−0.31 to 2.62)0.62 (−0.32 to 1.56)0.0 (ref)2.35 (0.09 to 4.60)0.11 (−1.05 to 1.27)0.0 (ref)
 Model 3. Model 2 + TV0.60 (−0.29 to 1.50)0.0 (ref)0.92 (−0.53 to 2.38)0.51 (−0.42 to 1.45)0.0 (ref)1.99 (−0.27 to 4.24)−0.03 (−1.19 to 1.12)0.0 (ref)
Obesity (BMI ≥95th vs 5th to 85th percentile)OR (95% CI)
 Model 1. Child age and gender2.03 (1.33 to 3.08)1.0 (ref)2.64 (1.49 to 4.67)1.17 (0.72 to, 1.90)1.0 (ref)4.63 (2.23 to 9.62)1.60 (0.93 to 2.74)1.0 (ref)
 Model 2. Model 1 + SES1.50 (0.93 to 2.40)1.0 (ref)1.41 (0.72 to 2.76)1.04 (0.62 to 1.76)1.0 (ref)2.47 (1.05 to 5.77)1.17 (0.65 to 2.13)1.0 (ref)
 Model 3. Model 2 + TV1.36 (0.84 to 2.21)1.0 (ref)1.27 (0.64 to 2.52)0.98 (0.58 to 1.66)1.0 (ref)2.12 (0.90 to 4.98)1.09 (0.60 to 2.00)1.0 (ref)
  • Data from 1046 children in Project Viva. SES, ; TV, television.

  • a Model 1 is adjusted only for child age and gender. Model 2 is additionally adjusted for maternal age, education, BMI, and parity; household income; and child race/ethnicity. Model 3 is further adjusted for child television viewing at mid-childhood.