TABLE 1

Demographics and Clinical Characteristics of Confirmed Pediatric AFM Cases, United States, 2015–2017

Variable201520162017Total
No. patients at time of acute illnessn = 18n = 143n = 32N = 193
Age, y, median (range, IQR)a8.2 (0.4 to 19, 4–13)5 (0.4 to 21, 3–10)9 (0.3 to 21, 3–12.5)6 (0.3 to 21, 3–10)
Sex, n (%)
 Male13 (72)86 (60)19 (59)118 (61)
 Female5 (28)57 (40)13 (41)75 (39)
Race, n (%)
 American Indian or Alaskan Native0 (0)3 (2)0 (0)3 (2)
 Asian2 (11)8 (6)0 (0)10 (5)
 Black or African American6 (33)24 (17)7 (22)37 (19)
 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
 White8 (44)77 (54)17 (53)102 (53)
 Missing2 (11)31 (22)8 (25)41 (21)
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Hispanic or Latino1 (6)25 (17)6 (19)32 (17)
 Not Hispanic or Latino5 (28)56 (39)6 (19)67 (35)
 Missing12 (67)62 (43)20 (63)94 (49)
Hospitalized, n (%)18 (100)143 (100)30 (94)191 (99)
Respiratory illness preceding limb weakness, n (%)5 (28)106 (74)16 (50)127 (66)
 Days to limb weakness, median (range, IQR)4 (3 to 5, 3–5)6 (0 to 28, 4–8)4.5 (0 to 27, 2–14)6 (0 to 28, 3–8)
Gastrointestinal illness preceding limb weaknessb, n (%)2 (50)33 (27)10 (36)45 (29)
 Days to limb weakness, median (range, IQR)—–2 (0 to 25, 1–6)3 (0 to 17, 1–8.5)2 (0 to 25, 1–7)
Febrile illness preceding limb weakness, n (%)6 (33)93 (65)21 (66)120 (62)
 Days to limb weakness, median (range, IQR)1 (0 to 4, 0–3)2 (0 to 28, 1–5)6 (0 to 27, 1.5–9)2 (0 to 28, 1–6)
Respiratory or febrile illness preceding limb weakness, n (%)8 (44)122 (85)23 (72)153 (79)
 Days to limb weakness, median (range, IQR)3 (0 to 5, 2–4)5 (0 to 28, 2–7)7 (0 to 27, 2–14)5 (0 to 28, 2–7)
No. limbs affected, n (%)
 12 (11)37 (26)2 (6)41 (21)
 28 (44)45 (31)12 (38)65 (34)
 31 (6)16 (11)1 (3)18 (9)
 47 (39)45 (31)17 (53)69 (36)
Site of limb involvement, n (%)
 Any upper extremity10 (56)118 (83)24 (75)152 (79)
 Any lower extremity16 (89)95 (66)26 (81)137 (71)
Cranial nerve findings, n (%)
 Any cranial nerve sign3 (17)53 (37)7 (22)63 (33)
 Facial weakness0 (0)28 (20)3 (9)31 (16)
 Dysphagia1 (6)17 (12)2 (6)20 (10)
 Diplopia or / double vision2 (11)14 (10)3 (9)19 (10)
 Dysarthria1 (6)13 (9)1 (3)15 (8)
Altered mental status, n (%)7 (39)31 (23)13 (43)51 (28)
Seizures, n (%)1 (6)3 (2)1 (3)5 (3)
Mechanical ventilation, n (%)6 (33)40 (30)13 (43)59 (33)
Death, n (%)0 (0)0 (0)1 (3)1 (0)
  • —, not applicable.

  • a Overall, includes 6 infants aged 0–6 mo and 11 infants aged 7–12 mo.

  • b Gastrointestinal illness data collection began mid-2015. Overall, data were available for 153 patients (2015, n = 4; 2016, n = 121; 2017, n = 28).