TABLE 2

Selected Relevant Screening Tools Feasible for Use in Pediatric Primary Care

Screening ToolScreening PurposeAvailable Forms and LanguagesaApproximate Time to CompleteAgesNotes and Link or Source
AAP Guide to Learning Disabilities for Primary Care, Appendix B19Learning disabilities, language disabilities, motor coordination problemsParent, teenager5 minPreschool to high schoolPsychometrics not evaluated (meant to be checklist inventories of skills acquired at various ages not an instrument); AAP bookstore (available as an e-book at https://shop.aap.org/)
Einstein Evaluation of School-Related Skills47Academic problemsChild7–10 min5–10 yhttps://marketplace.unl.edu/buros/einstein-assessment-of-school-related-skills.html
The Brief Impairment Scale48Interpersonal relations (with parents, siblings, peers, teachers, and other adults), school and/or work (attendance, performance, responsibility), and self-fulfillment (sports participation, hobbies, self-care, enjoyment)Layperson with minimal training (possibly adaptable for completion by parent)3–5 min4–17 yhttp://www.heardalliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Brief-Impairment-Scale-English.pdf
Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders49Anxiety disordersParent, child; 10 languages5 min8–18 yhttp://pediatricbipolar.pitt.edu/resources/instruments
Mood and Feelings Questionnaire50,51DepressionParent, child5 min8–18 yhttps://devepi.duhs.duke.edu/measures/the-mood-and-feelings-questionnaire-mfq/
PHQ-252,53Depression riskAdolescent3 min10–21 yhttp://www.cqaimh.org/pdf/tool_phq2.pdf; scoring instructions available at: https://brightfutures.aap.org/Bright%20Futures%20Documents/PHQ-2%20Instructions%20for%20Use.pdf
The Patient Health Questionnaire-9: Modified for Teens54Major depression, suicidality; this tool can follow a positive PHQ-2 resultParent, adolescent5 min10–21 yhttps://www.aacap.org/App_Themes/AACAP/docs/member_resources/toolbox_for_clinical_practice_and_outcomes/symptoms/GLAD-PC_PHQ-9.pdf; scoring instructions available at: http://www.thereachinstitute.org/images/phq_9_teens_scoring.pdf
Pediatric Symptom Checklist55,56Internalizing, externalizing, and attention problemsParent, child, teacher; 24 languages10–15 min3–16 yhttps://brightfutures.aap.org/materials-and-tools/tool-and-resource-kit/Pages/Developmental-Behavioral-Psychosocial-Screening-and-Assessment-Forms.aspx
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire57Emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity and/or inattention, peer relationships, prosocial behaviorParent, adolescent, teacher; 49 languages5–15 min4–17 ywww.sdqinfo.com; sdq{at}youthinmind.net
Vanderbilt Rating Scales58ADHD, ODD, conduct disorder, anxiety and/or depressionParent, teacher; Spanish5 min6–12 yhttps://www.nichq.org/sites/default/files/resource-file/NICHQ_Vanderbilt_Assessment_Scales.pdf
Bullying20,59Bullying; numerous screening tools exist, but feasibility in primary care has not been establishedVariousN/AVariousSee references (both articles are available electronically at no charge, and the CDC article has numerous bullying screening tools)
Screening to Brief Intervention60Adolescent tobacco, alcohol, and drug use (used as part of SBIRT)46,60Adolescent3 min14–21 yhttps://www.mcpap.com/pdf/S2BI_postcard.pdf
Child and Adolescent Trauma Screen 61Posttraumatic stress disorder symptomsParent, youth10 min2–18 yhttps://depts.washington.edu/hcsats/PDF/TF-%20CBT/pages/assessment.html
Child Stress Disorders Checklist-Short Form, 4-question version62Stress symptoms in children who have experienced trauma (including medical trauma)Parent3 min6–18 yhttps://www.nctsn.org/measures/child-stress-disorders-checklist
Childhood Autism Spectrum Test63Autism spectrum disorderParent; Spanish5–10 min4–11 yhttps://psychology-tools.com/cast/
  • This list is not meant to be exhaustive but representative of a range of screening instruments suitable for primary care that are in the public domain (with the exception of the AAP Guide to Learning Disabilities, which is published in book format, and the Einstein Evaluation of School-Related Skills). Psychometric properties of the included measures vary on the basis of the findings of different studies; included are those for which evaluated psychometric properties indicate acceptable reliability and validity. The measures included in this table are presented to help pediatricians make informed decisions when choosing tools to use in their work. Several relevant proprietary online screening, monitoring, and decision-support platforms for use in primary care are available (eg, Child Health and Development Inventory System64 and TriVox Health65) but are not free of charge for use and, therefore, are not included in this table. CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; N/A, not applicable; ODD, oppositional defiant disorder; PHQ-2, Patient Health Questionnaire-2.

  • a If the number of languages or additional languages is not listed in this column, the tool or instrument is available in English only.