TABLE 2

ATE of Food Insecurity on Children’s Health Outcomes (N = 29 341)

OutcomeaATE95% CIEffect Size,b %
General health
 Child health status (1–5; poor to excellent)−0.110*−0.158 to −0.059−2.45
 Child in very good and/or excellent health (0–1)−0.030*−0.044 to −0.008−3.11
Health care use
 Child No. ED visits (0–4+)0.060*0.016 to 0.10525.88
 Child saw mental health provider (0–1)−0.001−0.014 to 0.012
 Child No. medical office visits (0–6+)0.040−0.057 to 0.137
 Child medical care delayed due to cost (0–1)0.030*0.023 to 0.043146.53
 Child needed but could not afford medical care (0–1)0.020*0.016 to 0.031179.83
 Child needed but could not afford dental care (0–1)0.040*0.030 to 0.058105.5
 Child needed but could not afford mental health care (0–1)0.010*0.004 to 0.011114.31
 Child time since last doctor’s visit (<6 mo to never)−0.150−0.057 to 0.027
 Child received flu vaccine (0–1)−0.020−0.058 to 0.020
Chronic health conditions
 Child depressive symptoms (past 6 mo) (0–1)0.030*0.010 to 0.05027.91
 Child ever diagnosed with ADHD or ADD (0–1)−0.005−0.015 to 0.006
 Child ever diagnosed with asthma (0–1)0.025*0.001 to 0.04816.28
 Child currently has asthma (0–1)0.020*0.001 to 0.03719.1
 Child ever diagnosed with diabetes (0–1)0.000−0.002 to 0.001
 Child had respiratory allergy (0–1)0.030−0.005 to 0.059
 Child had skin allergy (0–1)0.060*0.022 to 0.10149.34
 Child had food allergy (0–1)0.030−0.006 to 0.057
Acute health conditions
 Child had cold (past 2 wk) (0–1)0.030*0.008 to 0.05821.81
 Child ever had chicken pox (0–1)0.010−0.019 to 0.031
 Child had chicken pox (0–1)0.010−0.007 to 0.037
 Child had diarrhea (0–1)0.010−0.003 to 0.016
 Child had anemia (0–1)0.003−0.002 to 0.008
 Child had 3+ ear infections (0–1)0.010−0.002 to 0.022
 Child had stomach problem with vomit and/or diarrhea (past 2 wk) (0–1)0.020*0.001 to 0.04041.22
  • ADD, attention deficit disorder; ADHD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; CI, confidence interval; —, not applicable.

  • a The reference period for all outcomes is the past year unless otherwise specified.

  • b Effect sizes describe the predicted ATE of living in a food-insecure household divided by the predicted outcome level had children not experienced food insecurity.

  • * P < .05.