TABLE 1

Participant Characteristics at Each Time Point of the Study

Participant CharacteristicsChild Age 4 y (N = 306)Child Age 5 y (N = 286)Child Age 6 y (N = 295)Child Age 8 y (N = 266)Child Age 9 y (N = 192)
Mother characteristics
 Age, y, mean (SD)29.47 (7.32)31.19 (7.18)33.52 (7.65)34.29 (7.57)
 Race and/or ethnicity, n (%)
  Non-Hispanic white205 (67.0)180 (67.7)189 (67.7)141 (67.1)123 (68.0)
  Hispanic or not white147 (48.0)86 (32.3)90 (32.3)69 (32.9)58 (32.0)
 Level of education, n (%)
  High school diploma or less147 (48.0)129 (48.5)135 (48.4)120 (47.2)83 (45.9)
  More than a high school diploma159 (52.0)137 (51.5)144 (51.60)134 (52.8)98 (54.1)
 BMI, mean (SD)32.50 (8.89)33.04 (9.32)32.87 (9.50)33.88 (9.90)
 Feeding behaviors, mean (SD)
  Restriction3.36 (0.93)3.33 (0.92)3.15 (1.00)
  Pressure to eat2.81 (1.15)2.75 (1.08)2.49 (1.10)
  Demandingness2.67 (0.56)2.55 (0.56)2.28 (0.56)
Child characteristics
 Age, y, mean (SD)4.24 (0.52)4.90 (0.70)5.94 (0.69)7.91 (0.72)8.55 (0.94)
 Male sex, n (%)158 (51.60)136 (51.1)144 (51.60)130 (51.2)98 (54.10)
 BMIz , mean (SD)0.79 (1.10)0.83 (1.10)0.84 (1.03)0.96 (0.99)0.91 (1.02)
 Picky eating (CEBQ FF), mean (SD)2.73 (0.84)2.72 (0.77)2.86 (0.82)2.68 (0.82)
  • Sample size (N) indicates the largest sample used from that time point in any analyses; total sample size represented for each variable varies because of missing data. FF, Food Fussiness; —, not measured at this time point.