TABLE 1

Sources of Nickel Exposure in Children

Sources
Artwork
 White metal statues
Cleaners and detergents
 Steel wool
Coins
Cooking
 Pans
 Pots
 Stainless steel cookware used to cook acidic foods
 Utensils (eg, silverware, spatula, and tongs)
Electronics
 Batteries
 Cell phone cases and electric shaversa
 Mobile phonesa
 Laptopsa
 Tabletsa
Foods (Mislankar and Zirwas50 and Sharma51)
 Especially canned food
 Seafood
 Beans
 Chocolate
Furniture
 Brushed-metal furniture
 Metal fittings and studs
Grooming
 Nail clippers
 Razors
Hair clips
 Bobby pins
 Metal brushes
 Curling irons
Implants
 Cardiac
 Dental
 Orthopedic
Keys
Makeup
 Eyelash curlers
 Ferrules
 Lip balm containers
Musical instruments
 Horns
 Wind instrument mouthpieces
Occupational
 Metal workers
 Miners
 Hospital cleaning staff
Ornamentation
 Accessories
 Ball and chain necklacesa
 Belt buckles and/or beltsa
 Button fliesa
 Glasses
 Grommets
 Jewelry (costume, white gold, and low-karat gold)a
  Earringsa
  Necklacesa
  Ringsa
  Watchesa
 Overalls
 Rivets
 Snaps
 Zippers
Scissors
Tools
Toys
  • Adapted from Jacob SE, Goldenberg A, Pelletier JL, Fonacier LS, Usatine R, Silverberg N. Nickel allergy and our children’s health: a review of indexed cases and a view of future prevention. Pediatr Dermatol. 2015;32(6):779–78 and Tuchman M, Silverberg JI, Jacob SE, Silverberg N. Nickel contact dermatitis in children. Clin Dermatol. 2015;33(3):320–326.

  • a The most commonly identified nickel-allergy sources in clinical practice.