TABLE 2

Management of Pain by Race and Ethnicity

Race and EthnicityProcess MeasuresClinical Outcomes
Any AnalgesicOpioid Analgesic≥2-Point Pain ReductionOptimal Pain Reductiona
%aORb (95% CI)%aORb (95% CI)%aORb (95% CI)%aORb (95% CI)
NH white84.6Referent53.2Referent88.4Referent64.8Referent
NH African American89.71.72 (1.51–1.95)39.50.86 (0.77–0.95)90.31.42 (1.14–1.76)57.20.78 (0.67–0.90)
Hispanic86.31.32 (1.16–1.51)36.40.86 (0.76–0.96)92.01.38 (1.04–1.83)60.40.80 (0.67–0.95)
Other85.21.06 (0.95–1.29)46.50.90 (0.79–1.02)89.51.09 (0.82–1.43)62.2084 (0.70–1.01)
  • a Optimal pain reduction is defined as reduction of pain into the mild or no pain categories within 90 min of maximum pain score.

  • b Adjusted for age, sex, insurance status, triage level, procedural sedation, fracture location, visit year, visit site, ED type, ED clinician, and provider type.