TABLE 1

Characteristics of Included Studies

First Author (Year)DesignPopulationMedical ComplexityIndicator of Preventable HospitalizationMedical Home PrinciplePrimary Focus of Analysis
ACSCReadmissionOtherPatient/ Family BehaviorsPatient/Family CharacteristicsHealth Care ProviderHealth System
Armour (2009)26Retrospective cohortPatients with spina bifida and private employer-sponsored insurance or their dependentsSpina bifidaXX
Berry (2011)23Retrospective cohortChildren hospitalized at 37 freestanding children’s hospitals across the United StatesCCC, Technology assistanceXXX
Berry (2011)32Retrospective cohortHospitalized patients who participate in a structured complex care program in 4 different children’s hospitalsCCC, neurologic impairment, technology assistance, high subspecialty use, organ system involvement, past utilizationXX
Cooley (2009)37Retrospective cohortPrimary care practices in networks from 7 health plans in 5 statesCerebral palsy, epilepsy, autismXXX
Dosa (2001)33Prospective cohortChildren with chronic conditions and unscheduled ICU admissions related to the condition in a rural New York regionTechnology assistanceXXX
Feudtner (2009)35Retrospective cohortPatients discharged from 38 children’s hospitals across the United StatesCCCXX
Frei-Jones (2009)34Retrospective cohortPatients with sickle cell disease admitted to St. Louis Children’s HospitalSickle cellXXX
Gadomski (1998)25Prepost without controlChildren with fee-for-service Medicaid in MarylandSelected conditions: immunodeficiency, cardiac anomalies, malignancies, chromosomal or congenital anomalies, cerebral palsy, metabolic disorders, cystic fibrosisXXXX
Gay (2011)31Retrospective cohortPatients with 15-d readmission to Children’s HospitalCCCXX
Gordon (2007)38Prepost without controlChildren enrolled in Special Needs Program at Medical College of WisconsinCombinations of subspecialty use, organ system involvement, past utilizationXXX
Hain (2013)28Retrospective cohortRandomly selected pairs of index admission/15-d readmission to Children’s Hospital at VanderbiltCRGXXX
Kun (2012)30Retrospective cohortChildren started on home mechanical ventilation for chronic respiratory failure at Children’s Hospital Los AngelesVentilatorXXX
Liptak (1998)12Quasi-experimental, nonequivalent comparisonHospitalizations for selected conditions over 10 y at Children’s Hospital in Rochester versus consortium of 18 tertiary academic medical centersSelected conditions: cardiac disease, cancer, epilepsy, CNS dysfunction, rheumatologic and musculoskeletal disorders, spina bifida, cystic fibrosis, ventriculoperitoneal shunt, congenital nervous system and musculoskeletal disordersXX
Lu (2012)24Cross-sectionalKids Inpatient Database; national sampleCCCXX
Palfrey (2004)15Prepost without controlCSHCN from 6 practices enrolled in multifaceted medical home interventionCombinations of subspecialty use, organ system involvement, past utilization, development, technology assistance, severity, riskXXX
Raphael (2011)39Prospective cohortCSHCN in Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS); national sampleFunctional limitations on CSHCN screenerXXX
Todd (2006)36Cross-sectionalDischarges from Colorado hospitals; Discharges in Kids Inpatient Database, national sampleSelected conditions: neuromuscular, brain/spinal cord malformation, infantile cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophiesXX
  • X, indicates presence of the characteristic (preventable hospitalization indicator, medical home principle, and primary analytical focus); —, indicates absence of the characteristic.