TABLE 4

Associations of 5 Sleep Characteristic Scores With Adiposity in Children From Ages 2 to 6 Years

Sleep Characteristic ScoresaAdiposity
BMI z ScoreWaist Circumference
Late sleep
 Model 10.12 (0.02 to 0.23)*0.45 (0.10 to 0.80)**
 Model 20.16 (0.05 to 0.27)*0.60 (0.23 to 0.98)**
Short sleep duration
 Model 10.12 (0.01 to 0.24)*0.47 (0.10 to 0.84)*
 Model 20.12 (0.01 to 0.25)*0.39 (−0.01 to 0.80)
Long sleep latency
 Model 10.11 (−0.03 to 0.25)0.25 (−0.17 to 0.67)
 Model 20.12 (−0.06 to 0.18)0.23 (−0.25 to 0.71)
Low sleep efficiency
 Model 10.10 (−0.08 to 0.29)0.20 (−0.38 to 0.77)
 Model 20.16 (−0.03 to 0.34)0.20 (−0.42 to 0.82)
Irregular sleep onset
 Model 10.01 (−0.14 to 0.89)0.14 (−0.23 to 0.51)
 Model 20.04 (−0.08 to 0.15)0.26 (−0.13 to 0.64)
  • Results are pooled for all imputation data sets. Application of the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons indicates statistical significance at P < .005. Values are estimated parameters for fixed effects of sleep characteristics: total scores (95% CI). Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, obesity risk group, and baseline BMI z score or waist circumference. Model 2: model 1 additionally adjusted for other confounders, including maternal ethnicity, family education level, parental marital status, living condition, having siblings or not, screen time, and physical activity level.

  • a Total score ranged from 0 to 5, with higher scores indicating higher prevalence of late sleep onset, short sleep duration, long sleep latency, low sleep efficiency, and greater day-to-day sleep-onset variation, respectively, across ages.

  • * P < .05; ** P < .005.