TABLE 1

Participant Demographics and Baseline Characteristics

Individual-ESI (N = 42)Group-ESI (N = 40)pHedges’s g
Demographics
 Age19.64 (1.93)19.58 (1.42).860.04
 Ethnicity.58
  White, %73.872.5
  Black, %7.110.0
  Other, %14.315.0
 Gender, % male81.092.5.13
 Maternal age31.98 (5.74)31.71 (5.44).830.05
 Maternal education15.64 (2.07)15.51 (2.26).800.06
Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales
 Social Composite37.02 (17.25)39.49 (21.11).570.13
 Speech Composite8.61 (2.32)6.50 (10.03).420.18
 Symbolic Composite24.00 (16.60)21.54 (15.15).490.15
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule
 Social Affect13.50 (4.28)14.43 (3.86).470.17
 Restricted, Repetitive Behavior3.05 (1.50)2.85 (1.55).660.10
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales
 Communication78.83 (13.06)79.79 (13.51).980.01
 Daily Living86.60 (10.98)87.42 (11.97).970.01
 Socialization84.55 (8.77)87.21 (9.62).520.15
 Motor94.55 (8.85)95.34 (11.66).720.08
 Adaptive Behavior Composite83.98 (8.93)85.03 (11.37).650.07
Mullen Scales of Early Learning
 Visual Reception42.07 (13.01)40.42 (10.44).450.17
 Fine Motor46.20 (11.59)42.48 (12.65).150.33
 Receptive Language29.27 (12.34)31.35 (12.61).390.19
 Expressive Language29.61 (11.22)28.68 (10.95).660.10
 Early Learning Composite75.56 (16.68)74.05 (16.86).690.17
  • P and Hedges’s g values refer to comparison of individual-ESI and group-ESI conditions. —, not applicable.