TABLE 4

Crude and Adjusted RRs of a Child Being Overweight in Relation to Family- and Parent-Level Emotional and Food-Related Dynamics During Family Meals

Crude RRa95% CIPAdjusted RRb95% CIPAdjusted + BMI RRc95% CIP
Emotional atmosphere
 Group enjoyment0.80(0.68–0.94).01*0.84(0.75–0.94).00*0.88(0.78–0.99).03*
 Relationship quality0.91(0.85–0.98).01*0.93(0.88–0.98).01*0.94(0.89–1.00).05*
 Hostility1.11(1.05–1.18).00*1.09(1.03–1.14).00*1.06(1.00–1.13).05*
 Lecture/moralize1.15(0.97–1.37).111.19(1.05–1.35).01*1.12(0.94–1.33).20
 Warmth0.70(0.54–0.92).01*0.69(0.52–0.92).01*0.70(0.55–0.89).00*
 Communication0.95(0.88–1.02).150.96(0.91–1.01).110.99(0.93–1.05).75
 Silent/pause1.11(1.04–1.18).00*1.06(1.00–1.13).061.12(1.03–1.21).01*
 Parental influence1.04(0.99–1.10).111.04(1.00–1.08).04*1.04(1.00–1.07).08
 Indulgent/permissive1.08(1.04–1.12).00*1.06(1.02–1.10).00*1.05(1.00–1.09).03*
 Inconsistent discipline1.08(1.04–1.13).00*1.06(1.02–1.10).00*1.05(1.00–1.10).04*
 Positive reinforcementd(—)(—)(—)
 Intrusiveness1.04(0.98–1.11).191.03(0.97–1.09).351.03(0.95–1.11).51
Food-related emotional atmosphere
 Food hostility1.18(1.09–1.27).00*1.14(1.06–1.22).00*1.07(0.98–1.17).12
 Food lecture/moralize1.23(1.12–1.36).00*1.22(1.07–1.40).00*1.23(1.03–1.46).02*
 Food warmthd(—)(—)(—)
 Food communication0.81(0.67–0.98).02*0.84(0.71–1.00).05*0.87(0.74–1.03).11
 Food parental influence1.08(1.00–1.10).05*1.03(1.00–1.07).081.03(0.98–1.07).22
 Food indulgent permissive1.09(1.05–1.13).00*1.07(1.02–1.11).00*1.05(1.00–1.10).08
 Food inconsistent discipline1.08(1.04–1.13).00*1.06(1.01–1.10).01*1.04(0.99–1.10).13
 Food positive reinforcementd(—)(—)(—)
 Food intrusiveness1.05(1.00–1.10).04*1.04(1.00–1.09).04*1.04(0.97–1.11).27
  • N = 120. Each RR is per a 10% change in the family-level atmosphere variable. *Significant (P < .05). RR, relative risk.

  • a Crude RR results take into account only the emotional atmosphere score itself. A score <1 suggests that the emotional atmosphere characteristic is associated with a lower risk of being overweight. For example, the “relationship quality” crude RR of 0.91 indicates that each additional 10% of dyads exhibiting relationship quality is associated with a 9% lower risk of being overweight. A score >1 suggests a higher risk of being overweight; for example, each additional 10% of dyads exhibiting “food hostility” (crude RR of 1.18) is associated with a 18% higher risk of being overweight.

  • b Adjusted RR results take into account the effects of age, race (4 categories), and gender on overweight status when estimating children’s risk of being overweight.

  • c Adjusted + BMI RR results take into account the effects of age, race (4 categories), gender, and the primary caregiver’s BMI on overweight status when estimating children’s risk of being overweight.

  • d Not enough data to assess these variables; families with overweight children had no dyadic interactions that were coded as positive.