TABLE 2

Association Between Census Division, Patient Characteristics, and Utilization of CT as the First Imaging Study for Children With Nephrolithiasis

Base ModelFully Adjusted Model
OR95% CIOR95% CI
Census division
 South region
  West South CentralReferentReferentReferentReferent
  East South Central1.30*1.09–1.561.27*1.06–1.54
 South Atlantic0.960.84–1.100.930.80–1.07
  Northeast Region
  New England0.50*0.40–0.640.48*0.37–0.62
  Middle Atlantic0.70*0.58–0.840.69*0.57–0.83
 Midwest region
  East North Central0.970.84–1.120.950.81–1.10
  West North Central1.240.99–1.541.220.98–1.53
 West region
  Mountain0.860.68–1.090.860.68–1.10
  Pacific0.69*0.57–0.820.71*0.59–0.86
Year of evaluation
 2003ReferentReferentReferentReferent
 20041.190.89–1.601.180.88–1.60
 20051.36*1.03–1.791.300.98–1.73
 20061.62*1.22–2.141.59*1.19–2.12
 20071.68*1.29–2.191.62*1.23–2.13
 20081.44*1.11–1.861.42*1.09–1.86
 20091.40*1.09–1.801.35*1.04–1.76
 20101.230.96–1.561.190.91–1.54
 20111.010.79–1.30.960.74–1.24
Age
 2–5 yearsReferentReferent
 6–11 years3.68*2.81–4.81
 12–17 years8.61*6.66–11.13
Gender
 MaleReferentReferent
 Female1.13*1.03–1.24
Insurance type
 HMOReferentReferent
 POS1.150.96–1.38
 PPO1.110.98–1.26
 EPO0.830.57–1.24
 CDHP/HDHP1.150.90–1.46
  • West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. *P < .05. CDHP, consumer-driven health plan; EPO, exclusive provider organization; HDHP, high-deductible health plan; HMO, health maintenance organization; POS, point of service; PPO, preferred provider organization.