TABLE 1

Description of Baseline Characteristics of the Groups

ControlNudge
STOMP (n = 129)Routine (n = 133)STOMP (n = 124)Routine (n = 131)
Female parent, n (%)111 (86)103 (77)105 (85)106 (81)
High school diploma or less, n (%)18 (14)14 (11)16 (13)10 (8)
Parent health literacy,a mean ± SD6.95 ± 0.216.83 ± 0.696.89 ± 0.376.86 ± 0.59
White race, n (%)116 (90)115 (87)105 (85)116 (89)
Hispanic, n (%)2 (2)6 (5)5 (4)3 (2)
Child previous surgery, n (%)85 (66)81 (61)84 (68)78 (60)
Female child, n (%)47 (36)59 (44)50 (40)60 (46)
Child age, mean ± SD12.76 ± 3.7212.79 ± 3.8613.52 ± 3.4012.36 ± 3.72
Child procedure type, n (%)
 Orthopedic or sports medicine79 (61)78 (59)69 (56)74 (57)
 General surgery or urology25 (19)26 (20)21 (17)28 (21)
 Otology11 (9)16 (12)13 (11)20 (15)
 Other14 (11)13 (10)21 (17)9 (7)
Child past opioid use, n (%)30 (23)35 (26)40 (32)34 (26)
Parent past opioid use, n (%)78 (61)50 (38)60 (48)72 (55)
Opioid kept in home, n (%)28 (22)22 (17)24 (19)36 (27)
Past opioid misuse, any, n (%)18 (14)8 (6)11 (9)24 (18)
 Took more8 (6)3 (2)7 (6)12 (9)
 Shared their opioid10 (8)4 (3)3 (2)14 (11)
 Took someone else’s7 (5)3 (2)8 (7)17 (13)
  • a Measured by using Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine–Brief, scored 0 to 7.