TABLE 1

Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, and Study Design Chart of Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

CategoryInclusion Criteria
PopulationChildren 5 y and under (mean age of sample <72 mo or identifiable subgroup with mean <72 mo). Studies conducted in any country, with samples of any language background, were included, as long as the article was published in English. Clinical and nonclinical samples were included.
InterventionIntervention involves use of an interactive game app on a touchscreen. “Interactive” suggests that children’s interaction with the screen has an effect on the material presented. Studies were excluded if they involved only interventions with electronic books, computers, noninteractive video, or multimedia or transmedia interventions. Studies in which a touchscreen device or app was used only as an assistive technology (eg, iPad version of a Picture Exchange Communication System) were excluded.
ComparisonAny comparison group type (eg, treatment or instruction as usual, no treatment, attention control, waitlist control, noninteractive video control, alternative app condition control, etc).
OutcomeAcademic achievement, executive functioning skills, socio-emotional skills, and task-specific learning (eg, learning nonsense names, learning to find an object, learning facts). Studies were excluded if only process outcomes (eg, engagement) were measured.
Study designRandomized controlled designs (including laboratory experiments and field trials) and quasi-experimental designs. Case studies, reviews, multiple baseline or multiple probe studies, correlational studies, and descriptive studies were excluded.