Mean Unadjusted Incidence Proportions of Religious Exemptions, Reported as Percentages With 95% CIs by State Policy Availability, Study Year, and State Policy Difficulty, and Adjusted Risk Ratios With 95% CIs for Comparisons of Interest

Religious Exemption Incidence Proportion ComparisonsUnadjusted Mean Proportion (95% CI) %Adjusted Risk Ratio (95% CI)
State policy availabilitya
 Religious exemption only1.63 (1.30–1.97)(Reference)
 Religious and personal belief exemptions0.41 (0.28–0.53)0.25 (0.16–0.38)
School year
 2011–20121.25 (0.84–1.66)(Reference)
 2012–20131.20 (0.81–1.59)0.97 (0.84–1.13)
 2013–20141.10 (0.84–1.36)0.93 (0.84–1.18)
 2014–20151.13 (0.86–1.40)0.95 (0.75–1.19)
 2015–20161.17 (0.92–1.43)0.99 (0.79–1.24)
 2016–20171.42 (1.07–1.76)1.15 (0.89–1.49)
 2017–20181.70 (1.31–2.08)1.31 (1.01–1.69)
State policy difficulty
 Easy1.22 (0.53–1.91)(Reference)
 Medium1.21 (0.92–1.50)0.83 (0.49–1.40)
 Difficult1.37 (0.88–1.87)0.89 (0.51–1.58)
  • a As of the 2017–2018 school year, states that did not offer religious or personal belief exemptions included the following: California, Mississippi, and West Virginia. States that offered personal belief exemptions included the following: Arkansas, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Louisiana, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin. Missouri permitted personal belief exemptions for child care facilities but not public schools. Statutes in Louisiana and Minnesota did not explicitly recognize religion as a reason for claiming an exemption, although the nonmedical exemption’s language may have encompassed religious beliefs; historically, Louisiana has reported religious exemptions separately, whereas Minnesota has not. Arizona did not permit religious exemptions for children entering kindergarten.