TABLE 2

Adjusted Linear Regression Coefficients for Associations of Timing of CF Introduction and Offspring’s Adiposity at Midchildhood and Early Adolescence in Breastfed (at Least Partly for ≥4 Months) or Formula-Fed (Never Breastfed or Stopped Breastfeeding by 4 Months) Children

OutcomesnModel 1 β (95% CI)Model 2 β (95% CI)
Timing of CF IntroductionTiming of CF Introduction
<4 mo4–<6 mo≥6 mo<4 mo4–<6 mo≥6 mo
Breastfed children
 Midchildhood
  BMI, z score6200.34 (0.11 to 0.58)0.0 (reference)−0.10 (−0.30 to 0.11)0.20 (−0.02 to 0.43)0.0 (reference)−0.05 (−0.24 to 0.14)
  Waist circumference, cm6202.71 (1.10 to 4.31)0.0 (reference)−0.04 (−1.44 to 1.36)1.78 (0.19 to 3.36)0.0 (reference)0.17 (−1.18 to 1.52)
  DXA whole-body fat percentage, %4831.76 (0.29 to 3.22)0.0 (reference)−0.21 (−1.57 to 1.16)1.08 (−0.41 to 2.57)0.0 (reference)0.00 (−1.34 to 1.35)
  DXA truncal fat mass, kg4830.53 (0.21 to 0.85)0.0 (reference)−0.06 (−0.36 to 0.24)0.33 (0.01 to 0.65)0.0 (reference)−0.01 (−0.30 to 0.29)
  Sum of skinfolds (subscapular plus triceps), mm6182.86 (0.97 to 4.75)0.0 (reference)−0.38 (−2.03 to 1.27)1.58 (−0.29 to 3.45)0.0 (reference)0.01 (−1.58 to 1.60)
  Skinfold ratio (subscapular/triceps)6180.04 (−0.01 to 0.08)0.0 (reference)−0.01 (−0.05 to 0.03)0.01 (−0.03 to 0.06)0.0 (reference)0.00 (−0.04 to 0.03)
 Early adolescence
  BMI, z score6010.34 (0.08 to 0.60)0.0 (reference)−0.06 (−0.28 to 0.17)0.22 (−0.02 to 0.47)0.0 (reference)0.02 (−0.19 to 0.22)
  Waist circumference, cm6043.48 (0.90 to 6.07)0.0 (reference)0.63 (−1.57 to 2.83)2.97 (0.47 to 5.47)0.0 (reference)1.09 (−0.99 to 3.16)
  DXA whole-body fat percentage, %4152.41 (0.43 to 4.38)0.0 (reference)0.70 (−1.15 to 2.55)1.73 (−0.23 to 3.68)0.0 (reference)0.53 (−1.24 to 2.31)
  DXA truncal fat mass, kg4151.72 (0.83 to 2.61)0.0 (reference)0.39 (−0.44 to 1.23)1.20 (0.33 to 2.06)0.0 (reference)0.40 (−0.39 to 1.19)
  Sum of skinfolds (subscapular plus triceps), mm6034.36 (1.34 to 7.38)0.0 (reference)−0.26 (−2.84 to 2.32)3.26 (0.33 to 6.19)0.0 (reference)0.26 (−2.19 to 2.70)
  Skinfold ratio (subscapular/triceps)6030.07 (0.02 to 0.13)0.0 (reference)0.03 (−0.02 to 0.07)0.04 (−0.02 to 0.09)0.0 (reference)0.04 (−0.01 to 0.09)
Formula-fed children
 Midchildhood
  BMI, z score2710.43 (0.17 to 0.68)0.0 (reference)0.48 (0.04 to 0.93)0.32 (0.09 to 0.55)0.0 (reference)0.37 (−0.03 to 0.77)
  Waist circumference, cm2723.17 (0.99 to 5.36)0.0 (reference)4.26 (0.51 to 8.02)2.58 (0.59 to 4.57)0.0 (reference)2.65 (−0.75 to 6.05)
  DXA whole-body fat percentage, %2191.18 (−0.56 to 2.91)0.0 (reference)0.19 (−2.99 to 3.36)1.15 (−0.44 to 2.73)0.0 (reference)−0.87 (−3.76 to 2.03)
  DXA truncal fat mass, kg2190.64 (0.14 to 1.14)0.0 (reference)0.52 (−0.40 to 1.43)0.52 (0.07 to 0.97)0.0 (reference)0.07 (−0.75 to 0.89)
  Sum of skinfolds (subscapular plus triceps), mm2714.85 (2.14 to 7.55)0.0 (reference)2.99 (−1.55 to 7.54)4.23 (1.70 to 6.77)0.0 (reference)1.25 (−2.98 to 5.48)
  Skinfold ratio (subscapular/triceps)2710.08 (0.03 to 0.13)0.0 (reference)0.14 (0.05 to 0.22)0.06 (0.01 to 0.11)0.0 (reference)0.10 (0.02 to 0.18)
 Early adolescence
  BMI, z score2450.47 (0.18 to 0.75)0.0 (reference)0.38 (−0.14 to 0.90)0.34 (0.07 to 0.61)0.0 (reference)0.33 (−0.15 to 0.81)
  Waist circumference, cm2464.63 (1.00 to 8.27)0.0 (reference)5.75 (−0.65 to 12.14)3.42 (0.12 to 6.71)0.0 (reference)4.27 (−1.46 to 10.00)
  DXA whole-body fat percentage, %1842.34 (−0.15 to 4.83)0.0 (reference)3.36 (−1.13 to 7.86)2.55 (0.20 to 4.91)0.0 (reference)2.25 (−1.87 to 6.37)
  DXA truncal fat mass, kg1841.44 (−0.08 to 2.96)0.0 (reference)1.55 (−1.19 to 4.29)1.12 (−0.25 to 2.50)0.0 (reference)0.59 (−1.82 to 3.00)
  Sum of skinfolds (subscapular plus triceps), mm2436.22 (2.08 to 10.36)0.0 (reference)7.85 (0.21 to 15.49)5.04 (1.13 to 8.95)0.0 (reference)6.27 (−0.79 to 13.33)
  Skinfold ratio (subscapular/triceps)2430.13 (0.06 to 0.19)0.0 (reference)0.17 (0.05 to 0.29)0.10 (0.04 to 0.17)0.0 (reference)0.13 (0.02 to 0.25)
  • Model 1 is adjusted for child age at outcome assessment and sex (except for BMI z score); Model 2 is Model 1 additionally adjusted for maternal education, marital status, household income, maternal prepregnancy BMI, paternal BMI, child’s race and/or ethnicity, infant gestational age at delivery, and change in wt-for-age z score from 0 to 4 mo.