TABLE 4

Adjusted Linear Regression Coefficients for Associations of Timing of Introduction of Specific Food Items and Offspring’s BMI z Score and Waist Circumference at Midchildhood and Early Adolescence in Breastfed (at Least Partly for ≥4 Months) or Formula-Fed (Never Breastfed or Stopped Breastfeeding by 4 Months) Children

OutcomesInfant Cereals, β (95% CI)Fruits, β (95% CI)Vegetables, β (95% CI)Fruit Juice, β (95% CI)
Timing of IntroductionTiming of IntroductionTiming of IntroductionTiming of Introduction
<4 mo4–<6 mo≥6 mo<4 mo4–<6 mo≥6 mo<4 mo4–<6 mo≥6 mo<4 mo4–<6 mo≥6 mo
Breastfed children
 Midchildhood
  BMI, z score0.28 (0.03 to 0.53)0.0 (reference)−0.08 (−0.26 to 0.11)0.22 (−0.17 to 0.61)0.0 (reference)−0.08 (−0.23 to 0.06)0.30 (−0.15 to 0.75)0.0 (reference)−0.08 (−0.22 to 0.06)0.46 (0.04 to 0.88)0.0 (reference)0.03 (−0.14 to 0.21)
  Waist circumference, cm2.24 (0.46 to 4.01)0.0 (reference)0.12 (−1.18 to 1.42)0.87 (−1.89 to 3.64)0.0 (reference)0.24 (−0.78 to 1.26)0.75 (−2.45 to 3.96)0.0 (reference)0.06 (−0.94 to 1.06)3.44 (0.48 to 6.40)0.0 (reference)0.10 (−1.14 to 1.35)
 Early adolescence
  BMI, z score0.20 (−0.08 to 0.47)0.0 (reference)−0.04 (−0.24 to 0.16)0.27 (−0.15 to 0.69)0.0 (reference)0.06 (−0.10 to 0.22)0.34 (−0.16 to 0.84)0.0 (reference)0.08 (−0.08 to 0.23)0.21 (−0.24 to 0.67)0.0 (reference)0.03 (−0.16 to 0.22)
  Waist circumference, cm3.02 (0.21 to 5.82)0.0 (reference)0.67 (−1.35 to 2.68)3.72 (−0.56 to 8.00)0.0 (reference)1.03 (−0.57 to 2.64)4.17 (−0.96 to 9.30)0.0 (reference)0.84 (−0.75 to 2.42)2.71 (−1.93 to 7.35)0.0 (reference)−0.00 (−1.96 to 1.96)
Formula-fed children
 Midchildhood
  BMI, z score0.33 (0.09 to 0.57)0.0 (reference)0.35 (−0.02 to 0.73)0.11 (−0.24 to 0.47)0.0 (reference)0.24 (−0.03 to 0.50)0.16 (−0.24 to 0.55)0.0 (reference)0.18 (−0.07 to 0.42)0.12 (−0.30 to 0.53)0.0 (reference)−0.10 (−0.37 to 0.16)
  Waist circumference, cm2.58 (0.49 to 4.66)0.0 (reference)2.33 (−0.82 to 5.48)−0.58 (−3.59 to 2.42)0.0 (reference)0.78 (−1.50 to 3.06)−0.20 (−3.53 to 3.14)0.0 (reference)0.67 (−1.40 to 2.74)1.33 (−2.16 to 4.82)0.0 (reference)−1.01 (−3.24 to 1.23)
 Early adolescence
  BMI, z score0.31 (0.02 to 0.59)0.0 (reference)0.17 (−0.27 to 0.60)0.11 (−0.30 to 0.53)0.0 (reference)0.06 (−0.25 to 0.36)0.15 (−0.30 to 0.61)0.0 (reference)0.01 (−0.26 to 0.29)0.34 (−0.11 to 0.79)0.0 (reference)−0.04 (−0.35 to 0.26)
  Waist circumference, cm3.10 (−0.39 to 6.58)0.0 (reference)1.77 (−3.38 to 6.92)0.88 (−4.14 to 5.90)0.0 (reference)−0.50 (−4.21 to 3.20)0.62 (−4.83 to 6.07)0.0 (reference)−0.93 (−4.27 to 2.41)3.63 (−1.73 to 8.99)0.0 (reference)−2.43 (−6.05 to 1.18)
  • Adjusted for child age at outcome assessment and sex (except for BMI z score), maternal education, marital status, household income, maternal prepregnancy BMI, paternal BMI, child’s race and/or ethnicity, infant gestational age at delivery, and change in wt-for-age z score from 0 to 4 mo.