TABLE 1

Respondents’ Characteristics at Baseline and the Prevalence of SSB Intake in the Past Month at 6 y of Age by Characteristics, IFPS II, 2005–2007 and Y6FU Study, 2012

Characteristic at baselineAll, n (%)bSSBa Intake During the Past Month at Age 6 y
0 Times/d, %b>0 to <1 Time/d, %b≥1 Time/d, %bP Valuec
Total1333 (100)19.462.018.6
Child’s gender.98
 Boy668 (50.1)19.262.118.7
 Girl665 (49.9)19.661.918.5
Child’s birth weight.85
 ≤4000 g1160 (87.0)19.761.718.6
 >4000 g173 (13.0)17.963.618.5
Breastfeeding duration<.0001
 <6 mo657 (49.3)17.058.424.6
 ≥6 mo676 (50.7)21.865.512.8
Maternal age.20
 18–24 y188 (14.1)14.461.823.9
 25–29 y428 (32.1)20.161.318.7
 30–34 y429 (32.2)18.664.117.2
 ≥35 y287 (21.5)23.060.017.1
Maternal race/ethnicity.79
 White, non-Hispanic1166 (87.5)19.562.018.5
 Black, non-Hispanic46 (3.5)17.761.520.8
 Hispanic67 (5.0)17.059.223.8
 Other, non-Hispanic54 (4.1)22.765.212.2
Maternal education<.0001
 ≤High school231 (17.3)14.357.528.2
 Some college466 (35.0)20.057.722.4
 College graduate636 (47.7)20.966.812.3
Marital status.03
 Not married209 (15.7)20.254.425.4
 Married1124 (84.3)19.363.417.3
Income-to-poverty level.001
 <185%456 (34.2)16.958.824.3
 185% to 349%502 (37.7)18.564.516.9
 ≥350%375 (28.1)23.762.413.9
Pre-pregnancy weight status.01
 Underweight or normal weight (<25.0 kg/m2)648 (48.7)23.060.316.7
 Overweight (25 to <30 kg/m2)343 (25.7)14.765.719.6
 Obese (≥30 kg/m2)341 (25.6)17.461.521.2
Parity0.06
 Primiparous391 (29.3)22.957.219.9
 Multiparous942 (70.7)18.064.018.1
  • a SSBs at age 6 y include regular soda, sweetened drinks such as Kool-Aid, lemonade, sweet tea, Hi-C, cranberry cocktail, Gatorade, and others.

  • b Sample distribution, percentages may not add up to 100% because of rounding.

  • c χ2 test was used for each variable to examine differences across categories; P < .05.