TABLE 1

Likelihood of Having High Difficulties in Domains Measured by the SDQ at 6 Years of Age, by Breastfeeding Duration: Y6FU

SDQ Domain (High Difficulties Scores)Crude OR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)
Emotional symptoms (4–10)
 Never breastfedReferenceReference
 Breastfed <6 months0.97 (0.57–1.63)1.04 (0.59–1.81)
 Breastfed ≥6 months + exclusive breastfeeding <3 months1.05 (0.61–1.79)1.39 (0.77–2.49)
 Breastfed ≥6 months + exclusive breastfeeding ≥3 months0.52 (0.27 –0.99)0.78 (0.39–1.55)
Conduct problems (4–10)
 Never breastfedReferenceReference
 Breastfed <6 months0.93 (0.54–1.60)1.08 (0.60–1.95)
 Breastfed ≥6 months + exclusive breastfeeding <3 months0.60 (0.32–1.10)0.87 (0.45–1.69)
 Breastfed ≥6 months + exclusive breastfeeding ≥3 months0.24 (0.10–0.54)0.42 (0.17–1.02)
Hyperactivity (8–10)
 Never breastfedReferenceReference
 Breastfed <6 months1.42 (0.71–2.82)1.45 (0.70–3.02)
 Breastfed ≥6 months + exclusive breastfeeding <3 months1.09 (0.52–2.27)1.17 (0.53–2.54)
 Breastfed ≥6 months + exclusive breastfeeding ≥3 months0.74 (0.33–1.69)0.99 (0.41–2.38)
Peer problems (4–10)
 Never breastfedReferenceReference
 Breastfed <6 months0.88 (0.49–1.57)0.72 (0.38–1.34)
 Breastfed ≥6 months + exclusive breastfeeding <3 months0.53 (0.27–1.03)0.50 (0.25–1.03)
 Breastfed ≥6 months + exclusive breastfeeding ≥3 months0.54 (0.27–1.09)0.70 (0.33–1.51)
Prosocial behavior (0–5)
 Never breastfedReferenceReference
 Breastfed <6 months0.64 (0.36–1.14)0.65 (0.35–1.21)
 Breastfed ≥6 months + exclusive breastfeeding <3 months0.60 (0.32–1.10)0.53 (0.27–1.04)
 Breastfed ≥6 months + exclusive breastfeeding ≥3 months0.58 (0.30–1.11)0.61 (0.30–1.27)
Total difficulties (15–40)
 Never breastfedReferenceReference
 Breastfed <6 months1.21 (0.68–2.14)1.25 (0.67–2.34)
 Breastfed ≥6 months + exclusive breastfeeding <3 months0.84 (0.45–1.56)1.19 (0.60–2.35)
 Breastfed ≥6 months + exclusive breastfeeding ≥3 months0.39 (0.18–0.85)0.76 (0.33–1.78)
  • N = 1442. aOR, adjusted odds ratio.

  • a Adjusted for mother’s education, poverty-to-income ratio, postnatal WIC, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy BMI, marital status, birth weight, gestational age, possible postpartum depression, maternal smoking in the first year of life, birth order, child’s gender, maternal age, and enrichment activities.