TABLE 4

Additive Interactions Between Gestational Age and Parenting

Adjusted RERI (95% CI)*
Developmental delay at 2–3 y of agea
 Parenting interactions
  and late preterm birth−0.33 (–1.09 to 0.79)
  and early term birth0.00 (–0.54 to 0.59)
 Parenting ineffectiveness
  and late preterm birth−0.02 (–0.73 to 1.23)
  and early term birth−0.20 (–0.68 to 0.30)
 Parenting inconsistency
  and late preterm birth0.09 (–0.77 to 1.41)
  and early term birth−0.13 (–0.72 to 0.52)
Receptive vocabulary delay at 4–5 y of ageb
 Parenting interactions
  and late preterm birth−1.01 (–1.84 to 0.19)
  and early term birth−0.25 (–0.90 to 0.39)
 Parenting ineffectiveness
  and late preterm birth0.13 (–0.91 to 2.14)
  and early term birth0.06 (–0.55 to 0.78)
 Parenting inconsistency
  and late preterm birth−0.77 (–1.65 to 0.41)
  and early term birth0.06 (–0.62 to 0.82)
  • * RERI = RR11 – RR10 – RR01 + 138; RERI = 0 is null (no excess risk due to interaction).

  • a Controls for delivery mode, number of siblings, family income adequacy, current maternal education, maternal mental health, child gender, cycle of entry into the NLSCY, province, and urban or rural status as well as main effects for gestational age, parenting interactions, parenting effectiveness, and parenting consistency.

  • b Controls for alcohol during pregnancy, placental ischemia and other hypoxia, other biological determinants, number of siblings, family income adequacy, current maternal education, maternal health, maternal mental health, family functioning, child gender, cycle of entry into the NLSCY, province, and urban or rural status as well as main effects for gestational age, parenting interactions, parenting effectiveness, and parenting consistency.