TABLE 3

Weighted Univariable and Multivariable Statistics for Receptive Vocabulary Delay (4–5 y of Age)

% With DelayUnadjusted RR (95% CI)Adjusted RR (95% CI)*
Perinatal variables
 Smoking during pregnancy
  Yes14.41.13 (0.93 to 1.36)NS
  No12.8Reference
 Alcohol during pregnancy
  Yes8.40.60 (0.46 to 0.77)0.60 (0.46 to 0.78)a
  No14.0ReferenceReference
 Placental ischemia and other hypoxia
  Yes17.11.37 (1.12 to 1.69)1.24 (0.99 to 1.53)
  No12.5ReferenceReference
 Other biological determinants
  Yes20.91.67 (1.30 to 2.15)1.42 (1.07 to 1.89)
  No12.5ReferenceReference
 Delivery mode
  Cesarean13.21.01 (0.84 to 1.22)NS
  Vaginal13.0Reference
 Gestational age
  Late preterm13.11.03 (0.79 to 1.35)1.06 (0.79 to 1.43)
  Early term13.91.09 (0.91 to 1.31)1.03 (0.85 to 1.25)
  Full term12.7ReferenceReference
Social context variables: family structure
 Partnership status
  Single-parent family21.11.01 (0.73 to 1.41)NS
  Any transition in partnership status16.21.18 (0.80 to 1.74)
  2-parent family11.9Reference
 Number of siblings
  ≥320.21.62 (1.24 to 2.10)1.81 (1.30 to 2.51)
  1–212.40.99 (0.80 to 1.22)1.05 (0.82 to 1.35)
  None12.5ReferenceReference
Social context variables: family resources
 Family income adequacy
  Any period of inadequacy24.52.35 (2.01 to 2.77)1.60 (1.29 to 1.97)
  Consistently adequate10.4ReferenceReference
 Current maternal education
  Secondary or less19.42.11 (1.78 to 2.50)1.47 (1.20 to 1.81)
  Some postsecondary12.41.34 (1.05 to 1.71)1.18 (0.92 to 1.52)
  College or university degree9.2ReferenceReference
 Maternal age (at birth of child)
  <20 y20.31.59 (1.20 to 2.11)NS
  ≥20 y12.8Reference
 Maternal health
  Any period of poor health21.91.93 (1.56 to 2.40)1.36 (1.06 to 1.74)
  Consistently good11.4ReferenceReference
 Maternal mental health
  Any period of depression21.51.99 (1.61 to 2.45)1.26 (0.98 to 1.64)
  Consistently not depressed10.8ReferenceReference
Social context variables: other
 Family functioning
  Poor functioning19.31.71 (1.38 to 2.11)1.32 (1.03 to 1.68)
  Not poor functioning11.3ReferenceReference
Proximal social processes
 Parenting interactions
  Negative20.31.72 (1.40 to 2.13)1.30 (1.03 to 1.64)
  Positive11.8ReferenceReference
 Parenting effectiveness
  Ineffective14.61.17 (0.93 to 1.48)1.13 (0.88 to 1.45)
  Effective12.4ReferenceReference
 Parenting consistency
  Inconsistent21.81.85 (1.53 to 2.24)1.51 (1.21 to 1.87)
  Consistent11.8ReferenceReference
Other covariates
 Child gender
  Male14. 91.33 (1.14 to 1.56)1.51 (1.26 to 1.79)
  Female11.2ReferenceReference
  • NS, P > .20, so variable removed from modeling process. *Analyses also control for design variables (cycle of entry into the NLSCY, province, and urban/rural status).

  • a Alcohol consumption during pregnancy referred to “any” alcohol consumption (because heavy consumption was too rare to be analyzed). As a result, this variable was strongly confounded by high socioeconomic status, which could explain the protective effect seen here.