TABLE 2

Weighted Univariable and Multivariable Statistics for Developmental Delay (2–3 y of Age)

% With DelayUnadjusted RR (95% CI)Adjusted RR (95% CI)*
Perinatal variables
 Smoking during pregnancy
  Yes14.91.10 (0.95 to 1.26)NS
  No13.6Reference
 Alcohol during pregnancy
  Yes13.70.99 (0.84 to 1.16)NS
  No13.9Reference
 Placental ischemia and other hypoxia
  Yes14.61.06 (0.89 to 1.26)NS
  No13.8Reference
 Other biological determinants
  Yes15.81.15 (0.89 to 1.48)NS
  No13.7Reference
 Delivery mode
  Cesarean16.41.24 (1.08 to 1.42)1.19 (1.03 to 1.38)
  Vaginal13.3ReferenceReference
 Gestational age
  Late preterm16.71.26 (1.01 to 1.56)1.13 (0.90 to 1.42)
  Early term14.31.07 (0.94 to 1.22)1.11 (0.96 to 1.27)
  Full term13.3ReferenceReference
Social context variables: family structure
 Partnership status
  Single-parent family14.41.04 (0.83 to 1.29)NS
  Any transition in partnership status12.60.91 (0.70 to 1.18)
  2-parent family13.9Reference
 Number of siblings
  ≥317.31.48 (1.20 to 1.83)1.36 (1.07 to 1.73)
  1–214.41.24 (1.07 to 1.43)1.18 (1.00 to 1.38)
  None11.6ReferenceReference
Social context variables: family resources
 Family income adequacy
  Any period of inadequacy16.21.22 (1.05 to 1.41)1.15 (0.97 to 1.36)
  Consistently adequate13.3ReferenceReference
 Current maternal education
  Secondary or less16.81.34 (1.18 to 1.54)1.27 (1.09 to 1.47)
  Some postsecondary12.10.97 (0.82 to 1.15)0.96 (0.80 to 1.15)
  College or university degree12.5ReferenceReference
 Maternal age (at birth of child)
  <20 y13.00.94 (0.67 to 1.30)NS
  ≥20 y13.9Reference
 Maternal health
  Any period of poor health14.51.04 (0.86 to 1.27)NS
  Consistently good13.9Reference
 Maternal mental health
  Any period of depression18.01.34 (1.12 to 1.61)1.17 (0.96 to 1.43)
  Consistently not depressed13.4ReferenceReference
Social context variables: other
 Family functioning
  Poor functioning16.41.21 (1.02 to 1.44)NS
  Not poor functioning13.5Reference
Proximal social processes
 Parenting interactions
  Negative21.11.63 (1.39 to 1.91)1.40 (1.17 to 1.67)
  Positive13.0ReferenceReference
 Parenting effectiveness
  Ineffective16.41.22 (1.02 to 1.46)1.14 (0.95 to 1.37)
  Effective13.4ReferenceReference
 Parenting consistency
  Inconsistent20.21.55 (1.29 to 1.87)1.32 (1.08 to 1.62)
  Consistent13.1ReferenceReference
Other covariates
 Child gender
  Male19.02.25 (1.98 to 2.56)2.36 (2.04 to 2.72)
  Female8.4ReferenceReference
  • NS, nonsignificant, P > .20, so variable removed from modeling process. *Analyses also control for design variables (cycle of entry into the NLSCY, province, and urban or rural status).