Risk Factors for Perinatal Depression

Risk FactorsAdditional Risk Factors Specific for Depression After Delivery
History of depressionDepression before or during pregnancy
History of anxietyAnxiety before or during pregnancy
Preexisting stressor or relationship issuesExperiencing stressful life events during pregnancy or the early postpartum period
Lack of social supportTraumatic birth experience
Unintended, unwanted pregnancyPreterm birth and/or infant admission to neonatal intensive care
Medicaid insurance or uninsuredBreastfeeding problems
Domestic and/or family violence
Lower income or socioeconomic status
Lower education
Smoking and substance use
Single status
Young parents (<30 y of age)
Having previous children
  • As reviewed in Lancaster et al,49 Robertson et al,50 and Underwood et al.42