Description of Primary Outcome Measures

Regular meal timesSingle 5-point item (“never” to “always”); study design based on the Sleep Well Be Well Regular Bedtime item37
Food choices12-item measure of food choices over last 24 h rated on a 3-point scale (“not at all,” “once,” or “more than once”) and drawn from the LSAC38
Regular bedtimeSingle 5-point item (“never” to “always”) adapted from the Sleep Well, Be Well study37
Regular bed routineSingle 5-point item (“never” to “always”) drawn from the Sleep Well Be Well study37
Safety of the environmentItems used to assess 11 aspects of home safety, which are dichotomized into “safe” versus “not safe”; study design based on The Royal Children’s Hospital Safety Centre and Kidsafe checklists39,40
Warm parenting6-item measure used to assess parental warmth; items rated on a 5-point scale (“never and/or almost never” to “always and/or almost always”) and drawn from the LSAC38
Hostile parenting5-item measure used to assess parental hostility; items rated on a 10-point scale (“not at all” to “all of the time”) and drawn from the LSAC38
Parent responsivity and the home learning environment (6 subscales)HOME Inventory41; 45-item measure composed of observation only (18 items), parent report only (8 items), and observation or parent report (19 items) used to assess the quality and quantity of stimulation and support available to a child in the home environment. Items are dichotomized (“not observed or reported” versus “observed and/or reported”) and summed. Continuous total scores range from 0 to 45, with higher scores indicating a better home environment. The 6 subscales scored are parental responsivity (11 items), acceptance of the child (8 items), organization of the environment (6 items), learning materials (9 items), parental involvement (6 items), and variety in experience (5 items).