TABLE 2

Factors Associated With CSF Testing in Infants With a Positive Urinalysis

aORa (95% CI)
Subjects
 Age, d
  7–304.6 (3.8–5.5)
  31–60Reference
 Sex
  Male1.1 (1.0–1.3)
  FemaleReference
 Abnormal inflammatory marker
  Yes2.2 (1.8–2.5)
  NoReference
Hospitals
 University affiliated
  Yes1.1 (0.8–1.4)
  NoReference
 Urban setting
  Yes1.0 (0.7–1.4)
  NoReference
 Annual volume of febrile infants
  >3001.8 (1.2–2.6)
  101–3001.3 (0.9–1.8)
  ≤100Reference
 Region
  Midwest0.6 (0.4–0.8)
  South0.9 (0.6–1.4)
  West0.6 (0.4–1.0)
  NortheastReference
  • Model excludes 132 of 3572 (3.7%) patients who did not have serum inflammatory markers done.

  • a Our single mixed-effects multilevel model included these 7 factors as fixed effects and hospital site as a random effect to adjust for clustering. Estimated coefficients from the mixed-effects models were marginalized to reflect the average effect across hospitals.