TABLE 1

Point Prevalence of Parent-Reported Current ASD Among Children Aged 3–17 Years According to Selected Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Birth Characteristics, United States, 2016

CharacteristicsNo. in Sample (Unweighted)No. With ASD (Unweighted)No. With ASD (Weighted) in ThousandsWeighted Prevalence of ASD, %95% CIUnadjusted PRR (95% CI)Adjusted PRRa (95% CI)
All children aged 3–17 y43 021113115292.52.23–2.81
Age, y
 3–575301232351.971.41–2.740.74 (0.51–1.07)0.81 (0.56–1.18)
 6–1114 9254226412.612.15–3.150.98 (0.77–1.26)1.02 (0.79–1.30)
 12–1720 5665866532.652.27–3.101.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
Sex
 Boys22 06491712083.883.41–4.413.63 (2.71–4.85)b3.46 (2.55–4.69)b
 Girls20 9572143211.070.82–1.391.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
Race and/or ethnicity
 Hispanic47341253682.431.76–3.350.94 (0.67–1.34)0.93 (0.64–1.36)
 Non-Hispanic white30 2157908152.572.26–2.931.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
 Non-Hispanic African American2542802202.792.03–3.811.08 (0.77–1.52)0.81 (0.54–1.21)
 Non-Hispanic other and/or multiracial55301361261.961.52–2.510.76 (0.57–1.01)0.75 (0.55–1.03)
Highest level of education by parent in household
 Less than high school973271462.561.56–4.160.94 (0.64–1.80)0.73 (0.38–1.40)
 High school, GED, vocational53771603502.982.19–4.061.26 (0.89–1.77)0.88 (0.58–1.31)
 Some college and/or technical school96302893232.421.96–2.981.02 (0.79–1.31)0.80 (0.59–1.09)
 College degree or higher26 0126326722.372.05–2.741.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
Family structurec
 2 parents, married31 1087528322.121.85–2.431.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
 2 parents, unmarried2649861673.362.08–5.371.58 (0.97–2.59)1.49 (0.91–2.45)
 Single mother54461963783.863.02–4.931.82 (1.37–2.41)b1.47 (1.05–2.05)b
 Other3092841282.291.46–3.581.08 (0.68–1.72)1.02 (0.58–1.80)
Household poverty
 <100% FPL42301654553.512.64–4.661.79 (1.29–2.47)b2.06 (1.31–3.22)b
 100%–199% FPL69102193382.481.84–3.341.27 (0.85–1.88)1.38 (0.91–2.07)
 200%–399% FPL13 1723333782.31.87–2.841.17 (0.87–1.59)1.27 (0.94–1.70)
 ≥400% FPL18 7094153571.971.62–2.391.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
Region
 Northeast81482462672.742.19–3.421.23 (0.83–1.82)1.20 (0.80–1.80)
 Midwest11 2662833532.712.22–3.311.22 (0.83–1.78)1.14 (0.79–1.64)
 South12 6403435772.462.04–2.951.10 (0.76–1.60)0.99 (0.68–1.43)
 West10 9672593322.231.61–3.071.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
Nativity
 US born41 230110114952.582.30–2.912.08 (1.25–3.47)b2.34 (1.30–4.21)b
 Foreign born153030341.240.75–2.031.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
Child born preterm
 Yes46331872794.033.10–5.231.78 (1.33–2.39)b1.71 (1.26–2.31)b
 No37 75792312062.261.99–2.581.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
Age of mother at child’s birth, y
 18–2473942283832.82.24–3.501.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
 25–2910 3402873532.351.87–2.950.84 (0.61–1.16)0.96 (0.68–1.36)
 30–3412 7262983582.211.72–2.840.79 (0.61–1.16)0.95 (0.64–1.39)
 35–3979231852692.842.11–3.821.01 (0.70–1.47)1.20 (0.81–1.79)
 ≥40217864612.41.52–3.750.85 (0.52–1.41)1.03 (0.61–1.75)
  • Note: n = 262 are missing ASD status. Data source: 2016 NSCH. GED, General Educational Development; —, not applicable.

  • a Adjusted for all other demographic, sociodemographic, and birth characteristics shown.

  • b Significant value.

  • c Categories are mutually exclusive.