TABLE 4

Generalized Linear Models Used to Link Relative Harm Perceptions of Tobacco Products Among Youth at W1 to New Use at W2

RRa95% CIaARRa,b95% CIa
E-cigarettes
 Less harmful2.0c1.4–2.81.6c1.2–2.2
 About the same1.20.9–1.81.10.8–1.6
 More harmful1.01.0
Cigars overall
 Less harmful1.7c1.1–2.81.51.0–2.4
 About the same0.80.6–1.10.90.6–1.2
 More harmful1.01.0
Pipes
 Less harmful1.90.8–4.42.10.9–5.0
 About the same0.80.4–1.70.80.4–1.7
 More harmful1.01.0
Hookah
 Less harmful2.1c1.3–3.41.9c1.2–3.1
 About the same1.00.7–1.61.00.6–1.6
 More harmful1.01.0
Smokeless tobacco
 Less harmful2.2c1.2–4.12.3c1.3–4.0
 About the same1.10.6–1.81.30.8–2.1
 More harmful1.01.0
  • From the US PATH Study (2013–2015). The sample included youth who completed a W2 interview and had never used each product at W1 but had heard of the product, respectively. —, not applicable.

  • a Estimates and 95% CIs are weighted to represent the US youth population at W2.

  • b ARRs are from generalized linear models (binomial family with log link) that are controlled for age, sex, race, region, parent education, ever alcohol use, and ever use of tobacco products other than the focal product at W1. In adjusted models for e-cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco, a generalized linear model (Poisson family with log link) was used.

  • c Statistically significant at the α = .05 level.