TABLE 2

PRRs of Having Selected Health Care Characteristics According to Parent-Reported ASD Status and Other EBDs, United States, 2016

Children With ASD (n = 1131), Weighted %Children With Other EBDsa (n = 7795), Weighted %All Other Children (n = 33 014), Weighted %Children With ASD Versus Children With Other EBDs,a Adjusted PRR (95% CI)bChildren With ASD Versus All Other Children, Adjusted PRR (95% CI)b
Insurance statusc
 Public only46.940.228.41.12 (0.98–1.28)1.68 (1.47–1.91)d
 Private only39.946.659.80.88 (0.77–1.02)0.66 (0.57–0.75)d
 Other11.09.15.41.22 (0.88–1.70)2.10 (1.53–2.87)d
 Uninsured2.14.16.40.53 (0.30–0.93)d0.35 (0.20–0.60)d
Visited health care provider in past 12 mo93.989.683.61.05 (1.01–1.08)d1.12 (1.09–1.15)d
Had a usual place for preventive care94.894.791.31.00 (0.95–1.05)1.04 (0.99–1.09)
Any dental visit in past 12 mo84.388.887.10.96 (0.91–1.02)0.96 (0.90–1.01)
Received treatment or counseling from mental health provider45.939.63.01.28 (1.13–1.45)d15.18 (12.76–18.05)d
Big problem to get mental health treatment or counseling (among those who needed to see a mental health professional)22.915.98.51.44 (1.04–1.98)d2.71 (1.46–5.05)d
Used medication because of emotions or behavior42.137.20.41.18 (1.02–1.36)d84.56 (59.19–120.81)d
Saw specialist other than mental health professional35.027.211.71.32 (1.11–1.57)d2.97 (2.52–3.50)d
Big problem to get the specialist care needed (among those who needed to see a specialist other than mental health professional)18.412.04.31.40 (0.86–2.29)3.61 (2.03–6.45)d
Used alternative health care or treatment15.511.45.41.43 (1.07–1.92)d2.83 (2.15–3.71)d
Did not get needed health care10.88.32.11.37 (0.93–2.02)5.63 (3.86–8.21)d
 Type of care not received (among those who did not get needed care)
  Medical and/or dental32.163.286.00.56 (0.36–0.88)d0.41 (0.26–0.64)d
  Hearing and/or vision24.5e27.731.70.83 (0.39–1.77)0.69 (0.32–1.52)
  Mental health63.142.49.5e1.46 (1.07–1.98)d6.82 (3.45–13.51)d
  Other27.620.45.8e1.27 (0.64–2.53)4.02 (1.74–9.28)d
Usually or always parents frustrated in efforts to get services14.97.41.52.02 (1.45–2.82)d10.53 (7.51–14.77)d
Child had a special education or early intervention plan87.541.36.12.15 (1.99–2.32)d13.83 (12.37–15.45)d
 Age at time of first plan, y (among those with a special education or early intervention plan)
  0–220.215.724.21.12 (0.84–1.49)0.83 (0.62–1.11)
  3–557.731.339.81.77 (1.53–2.05)d1.46 (1.23–1.73)d
  6–814.133.522.50.45 (0.34–0.60)d0.61 (0.44–0.85)d
  ≥98.019.613.50.50 (0.34–0.72)d0.65 (0.42–1.01)
 Currently receiving services under plan (among those with a special education or early intervention plan)84.378.037.31.07 (1.01–1.14)d2.27 (1.97–2.61)d
Ever received special services to meet developmental needs89.040.09.32.22 (2.05–2.41)d9.32 (8.52–10.18)d
 Age when began receiving these services, y (among those who received special services)
  0–227.822.725.81.14 (0.92–1.42)1.15 (0.93–1.42)
  3–552.035.848.91.42 (1.22–1.66)d1.06 (0.91–1.22)
  6–812.729.119.60.46 (0.35–0.62)d0.62 (0.45–0.85)d
  ≥97.612.45.70.66 (0.41–1.06)1.25 (0.72–2.17)
 Currently receiving special services for developmental needs (among those who received special services)76.259.223.71.27 (1.17–1.37)d3.30 (2.82–3.87)d
Had a medical home31.641.550.00.77 (0.65–0.91)d0.63 (0.54–0.73)d
Had at least 1 personal doctor or nurse78.476.771.41.03 (0.95–1.11)1.10 (1.02–1.18)d
Had usual sources for sick care87.680.778.71.09 (1.03–1.15)d1.11 (1.05–1.17)d
Received family-centered care (among those with a health care visit in the past 12 mo)72.682.787.20.89 (0.82–0.96)d0.84 (0.77–0.91)d
Had no problems getting referrals when needed (among those who needed a referral)66.571.581.20.93 (0.80–1.08)0.81 (0.71–0.93)d
Received all needed components of care coordination (among those who needed care coordination)46.060.276.30.76 (0.65–0.88)d0.59 (0.51–0.68)d
  • Note: n = 1343 are missing data on EBD status (n = 262 are missing data on autism, and the rest are missing data on at least 1 of the other EBDs we assessed). Data source: 2016 NSCH.

  • a EBDs include ADHD, anxiety, behavioral or conduct problems, depression, developmental delay, Down syndrome, intellectual disability, learning disability, and Tourette syndrome. In addition, 92.3% of children with ASD were reported to have other EBDs.

  • b Adjusted for age, sex, and race and/or ethnicity.

  • c Other insurance includes private, public, and unspecified.

  • d Significant value.

  • e Estimates are considered unreliable and should be used with caution. Data have a relative SE >30%.