TABLE 3

Percentage of Children Aged 3–17 Years Who Took Medication for ASD or Received Behavioral Treatment of ASD, Among Children Aged 3–17 Years Who Currently Have ASD and are Insured, United States, 2016

Medication for ASD (n = 323)Behavioral Treatment of ASD (n = 686)
Weighted %Adjusted PRRa95% CIWeighted %Adjusted PRRa95% CI
Overall27.464.2
Sex
 Boys30.11.300.89–1.8963.10.960.81–1.14
 Girls17.41.00Referent68.41.00Referent
Race and/or ethnicity
 Hispanic15.50.890.60–1.3167.71.190.99–1.42
 Non-Hispanic white30.11.00Referent62.51.00Referent
 Non-Hispanic African American41.21.120.79–1.5867.21.100.89–1.34
 Non-Hispanic other and/or multiracial21.10.900.58–1.3959.90.920.71–1.19
Highest level of education by parent in household
 Less than high school55.5b1.74c1.17–2.59c49.5b0.640.39–1.05
 High school, GED, vocational23.40.990.67–1.4775.01.100.91–1.34
 Some college and/or technical school23.80.880.61–1.2663.51.000.83–1.20
 College degree or higher24.31.00Referent63.61.00Referent
Family structure
 2 parents, married24.51.00Referent64.81.00Referent
 2 parents, unmarried19.9b0.40c0.19–0.82c71.71.130.91–1.40
 Single mother37.70.880.63–1.2256.10.800.63–1.02
 Other26.90.760.49–1.1980.11.210.98–1.49
Household poverty
 <100% FPL27.61.030.57–1.8468.71.080.81–1.43
 100%–199% FPL34.31.330.77–2.2758.60.980.71–1.35
 200%–399% FPL22.51.090.73–1.6364.91.000.82–1.24
 ≥400% FPL26.21.00Referent63.11.00Referent
Insurance statusd
 Public only32.41.080.73–1.6067.30.980.80–1.19
 Private only22.41.00Referent64.41.00Referent
 Other24.61.030.71–1.4950.20.800.62–1.03
Region
 Northeast26.31.410.89–2.2467.51.110.88–1.41
 Midwest34.41.95c1.26–3.00c61.01.030.81–1.31
 South32.41.480.99–2.2366.01.110.88–1.41
 West12.41.00Referent61.91.00Referent
Nativity
 US born27.20.730.42–1.2764.00.77c0.63–0.93c
 Foreign born39.4b1.00Referent76.1b1.00Referent
Years since first diagnosise
 0–218.11.00Referent68.91.00Referent
 3–622.51.120.76–1.6565.10.980.81–1.18
 ≥742.91.66c1.19–2.32c62.80.920.77–1.12
Type of health care provider to give diagnosis
 Primary care provider28.71.00Referent55.71.00Referent
 Specialist24.40.820.61–1.1165.71.150.89–1.49
 Psychologist (school and nonschool)23.60.700.49–1.0159.71.160.90–1.51
 Psychiatrist35.21.030.74–1.4469.71.180.89–1.57
 Other or don’t know34.00.700.45–1.1075.31.42c1.10–1.84c
Co-occurring conditions
 ADD and/or ADHD (ref = no ADD and/or ADHD)47.53.30c2.14–5.07c62.80.84c0.70–0.99c
 Anxiety problems (ref = no anxiety problems)39.91.160.89–1.5168.01.050.89–1.24
 Developmental delay (ref = no developmental delay)32.11.300.98–1.7368.21.080.93–1.26
 Behavioral or conduct problems (ref = no behavioral or conduct problems)39.21.72c1.26–2.33c72.01.39c1.16–1.66c
Currently taking medication for ASD75.31.31c1.13–1.52c
Received behavioral treatment of ASD32.01.64c1.18–2.28c
  • Data source: 2016 NSCH. GED, General Educational Development; ref, referent; —, not applicable.

  • a Adjusted for all other demographic, sociodemographic, and birth characteristics shown.

  • b Estimates are considered unreliable and should be used with caution. Data have a relative SE >30% or unweighted denominator n < 30.

  • c Significant value.

  • d Other insurance includes private, public, and unspecified.

  • e The analyses included those with missing information on age at diagnosis (n = 95).