TABLE 4

Fully-Adjusted Model-Based Expected Trajectories of Child Behavior for Children With Persistent, Newly Developed, and Resolved CD Versus TD Children, Data From the 2001 ECLS-B

Mean Difference in Child Behavior ScoresaPb
24 mo, β (SE)4 y, β (SE)5 y, β (SE)
CD statusc
 Resolved0.07 (0.03)*0.06 (0.03)0.06 (0.04).80
 Newly developed0.15 (0.03)***0.20 (0.04)***0.22 (0.04)***.06
 Persistent0.18 (0.06)**0.32 (0.07)***0.39 (0.09)***.01
 TDReferenceReferenceReference
Birth factors
 Birth weight status
  Very low0.11 (0.03)**0.20 (0.03)***0.25 (0.04)***<.0001
  Low0.09 (0.03)**0.08 (0.03)**0.08 (0.04)*.85
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  High0.01 (0.03)0.02 (0.03)0.03 (0.04).68
 Plurality status
  Twin or triplet0.01 (0.03)0.03 (0.03)0.07 (0.05).40
  Singleton birthReferenceReferenceReference
 Congenital anomaly
 Yes0.07 (0.06)0.01 (0.06)−0.03 (0.08).14
 NoReferenceReferenceReference
Sociodemographic and family factors
 Child gender
  Boy0.14 (0.02)***0.31 (0.02)***0.39 (0.03)***<.0001
  GirlReferenceReferenceReference
 Child race/ethnicity
  Non-Hispanic whiteReferenceReferenceReference
  Non-Hispanic black0.13 (0.03)***0.28 (0.04)***0.35 (0.05)***<.0001
  Non-Hispanic other0.09 (0.02)***0.20 (0.03)***0.25 (0.04)***<.0001
  Hispanic−0.004 (0.02)0.01 (0.03)*0.12 (0.04)**<.0001
 Child health insurance status
  PrivateReferenceReferenceReference
  Public0.03 (0.02)0.02 (0.03)0.02 (0.04).40
  No insurance0.33 (0.12)**0.40 (0.17)*0.44 (0.21)*.64
 Family structure
  Single-parent household0.06 (0.02)*0.12 (0.03)***0.14 (0.03)***.01
  Two-parent householdReferenceReferenceReference
 Other children in the household
  0ReferenceReferenceReference
  10.01 (0.02)0.10 (0.02)***0.14 (0.03)***<.0001
  2+−0.08 (0.02)***0.04 (0.03)0.10 (0.03)***<.0001
 SES
  First quintile (lowest)0.27 (0.03)***0.37 (0.03)***0.42 (0.04)***<.0001
  Second quintile0.17 (0.03)***0.25 (0.03)***0.29 (0.04)***<.0001
  Third quintile0.10 (0.03)***0.17 (0.03)***0.20 (0.03)***.001
  Fourth quintile0.06 (0.02)**0.13 (0.02)***0.16 (0.03)***.001
  Fifth quintile (highest)ReferenceReferenceReference
Between-person variability0.32 (0.01)***
Residual variance0.53 (0.01)***
  • ***P ≤ .0001; **P ≤ .01; *P ≤ .05.

  • a Child behavior was measured by the ITSC (9 and 24 mo) and the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales-2nd Edition (ages 4 and 5). Scores were summed and standardized to population; mean = 10, SD = 1. Higher scores indicate worse behavior. β coefficients represent the SD difference in behavior scores compared with the reference group.

  • b P value for interaction with child age.

  • c CD was defined by the lowest 10th percentile of the BSF-R mental scale at ages 9 and/or 24 mo, categorized as follows: resolved (CD detected at 9 mo but not at 24 mo); newly developed (CD detected at 24 mo but not at 9 mo); and persistent (CD detected at 9 and 24 mo); versus TD. At each age, overall group differences were significant at P < .0001.