TABLE 1

The Distribution of Baseline Characteristics Between the Vitamin A and the Placebo Groups

AllBoysGirls
Vitamin APlaceboVitamin APlaceboVitamin APlacebo
No.376037791899191518611864
Age, mo, median (interquartile range)9.8 (8.7–12.5)9.8 (8.8–12.6)9.7 (8.5–12.3)9.9 (8.9–12.5)9.9 (8.9–12.6)9.8 (8.8–12.6)
Old EPI vaccinesa1615 (43)1612 (43)809 (43)799 (42)806 (43)813 (44)
 OPV225 (14)177 (11)123 (15)86 (11)102 (13)91 (11)
 MV660 (41)678 (42)337 (41)341 (43)323 (40)337 (41)
 DTP388 (24)400 (25)192 (24)196 (25)196 (24)204 (25)
 DTP+MV342 (21)357 (22)157 (19)176 (22)185 (23)181 (22)
New EPI vaccinesa2088 (56)2120 (56)1058 (56)1096 (57)1030 (55)1024 (55)
 YF93 (4)78 (4)41 (4)43 (4)52 (5)35 (3)
 MV+YF887 (42)936 (44)459 (43)490 (45)428 (42)446 (44)
 Pentavalent694 (33)672 (32)362 (34)348 (32)332 (32)324 (32)
 Pentavalent+MV83 (4)78 (4)32 (3)42 (4)51 (5)36 (4)
 Pentavalent+YF13 (1)10 (0)7 (1)3 (0)6 (1)7 (1)
 Pentavalent+MV+YF318 (15)346 (16)157 (15)170 (15)161 (16)176 (17)
Combination of old and new EPI vaccinesa57 (2)47 (1)32 (2)20 (1)25 (1)27 (1)
 DTP+YF9 (16)9 (19)4 (13)3 (15)5 (20)6 (22)
 DTP+MV+YF48 (84)38 (81)28 (88)17 (85)20 (80)21 (78)
Received VAS before enrollmentb2026 (54)2060 (55)1014 (53)1017 (53)1020 (55)1049 (56)
Enrolled in rural areab2288 (61)2299 (61)1134 (60)1145 (60)1154 (62)1154 (62)
Enrolled in the dry seasonb1707 (45)1712 (45)851 (45)860 (45)856 (46)852 (46)
Anthropometrics at enrollment
 Mean weight-for-age (SD)c−0.89 (1.23)−0.85 (1.23)−0.93 (1.28)−0.92 (1.27)−0.85 (1.17)−0.78 (1.19)
 Mean length-for-age (SD)c−0.94 (1.37)−0.94 (1.48)−0.99 (1.44)−1.07 (1.50)−0.89 (1.29)−0.80 (1.44)
 Mean weight-for-length (SD)c−0.50 (1.26)−0.45 (1.24)−0.52 (1.34)−0.46 (1.30)−0.48 (1.17)−0.44 (1.18)
 Mean arm-circumference-for-age (SD)c−0.18 (1.12)−0.17 (1.13)−0.19 (1.16)−0.19 (1.16)−0.17 (1.07)−0.14 (1.09)
 Mean maternal arm-circumference, mm (SD)271 (33)272 (33)271 (33)271 (33)270 (33)272 (33)
Breastfed at enrollmentb,d3689 (98)3686 (98)1869 (99)1871 (98)1820 (98)1815 (98)
Morbidity on day of enrollmentb,d
 Diarrhea325 (9)370 (10)162 (9)185 (10)163 (9)185 (10)
 Cough855 (23)817 (22)449 (24)421 (22)406 (22)396 (21)
 Fever567 (15)561 (15)297 (16)288 (15)270 (15)273 (15)
 Vomiting168 (4)186 (5)100 (5)85 (4)68 (4)101 (5)
Socioeconomic status
 Formal education of motherb,d1635 (46)1620 (45)834 (46)815 (45)801 (45)805 (46)
 Mother signed enrollment form1265 (34)1253 (33)658 (35)642 (34)607 (33)611 (33)
Ethnicityb,d
 Balanta782 (21)769 (21)377 (20)370 (19)405 (22)399 (21)
 Fula675 (18)698 (19)352 (19)356 (19)323 (17)342 (18)
 Mandinga505 (14)469 (13)253 (13)240 (13)252 (14)229 (12)
 Pepel792 (21)810 (22)402 (21)420 (22)390 (21)390 (21)
 Manjaco/Mancanha432 (12)423 (11)232 (12)208 (11)200 (11)215 (12)
 Other553 (15)582 (16)273 (14)307 (16)280 (15)275 (15)
Age of mother, y, median (interquartile range)26 (22–31)26 (22–31)26 (22–31)26 (22–31)26 (22–31)26 (21–31)
Vitamin A deficiente374 (67)350 (64)192 (68)180 (66)182 (67)170 (62)
  • Values are numbers (percentages) unless stated otherwise. EPI, Expanded Program on Immunizations.

  • a Vaccine groups: OPV may have been given together with the vaccines.

  • b Variables in 2 levels are presented by 1 level.

  • c Z-scores for weight-for-age, length-for-age, weight-for-length, and arm-circumference-for-age were based on the 2006-WHO child growth standard.

  • d Values do not add up because some have missing information.

  • e Vitamin A status assessed among 1102 participants, VAS: 557, Placebo: 545.