TABLE 2

FDA-Approved NNSs

Type (Approval Distinction)Commercial NameKcal/gSweetness Compared With SucroseIntroduction and/or FDA ApprovalHeating Reduces SweetnessContraindication and/or Safety Issues
Saccharin (1,2- benzisothiazolin-3-1, 1,1-dioxide) (food additive)Sweet’N Low, Sugar Twin, Necta Sweet0200–700Introduced in 1879; FDA approved for useNoNone
Aspartame (N-[l-α- Aspartyl]-L-phe, 1-methyl ester) (food additive)NutraSweet, Equal, Sugar Twin4a180Approved for limited use (ie, tabletop sweetener) by the FDA in 1981 and approved for general use in 1996YesPhenylketonuria; reported cases of thrombocytopenia (78)50
Acesulfame potassium and/or acelsulfame potassium (potassium 6–methyl-2,2-dioxo-oxathiazin-4-folate) (food additive)Sunett, Sweet One0300Discovered 1967; FDA approved limited use 1988 and general use (exceptions: meat and poultry) in 2003NoAssociated with cancer in animals at high dose; no known association in humans
Sucralose (1,6- Dichloro-1, 6-dideoxy-β-D- fructofuranosyl-4-chloro-4-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside) (food additive)Splenda0600Discovered in 1976; FDA approved for limited use in 1998 and for general use in 1999NoNone
Neotame (N-[N-{3,3-dimethylbutyl}-L-α-aspartyl-L-phe 1-methyl ester]) (food additive)Newtame07000–13 000FDA approved for general use 2002 (exceptions: meat and poultry)NoContains phe and asp and is therefore contraindicated in those with phenylketonuria
Stevia (1,1-dioxo-1,2-benzothiazol-3-1), GRASTruvia, Pure Via, Enliten0200–400Accepted as GRAS April 20, 2015YesNone
Advantame ([N-{3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)}-propyl-α-aspartyl]-L-phe 1-methyl ester)None3.8520 000FDA approved for general use 2014 (exceptions: meat and poultry)NoDetermined to be safe for use in children
Luo han guo fruit extract (GRAS)Monk Fruit in the Raw, PureLo Lo Han SweetenerUnknown600GRAS January 15, 2010; intended for use as a tabletop sweetener, food ingredient, and additional sweetening agentUnknownNone
  • Adapted from AND. Scientific opinion on the safety of advantame for the proposed uses as a food additive. EFSA J. 2013;11(7):3301; Fitch C, Keim KS; Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(5):739–758; Renwick AG. Postscript on advantame–a novel high-potency low-calorie sweetener. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49(suppl 1):S1; Kroger M, Meister K, Kava R. Low-calorie sweeteners and other sugar substitutes: a review of the safety issues. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2006;5:35–47; and Magnuson BA, Roberts A, Nestmann ER. Critical review of the current literature on the safety of sucralose. Food Chem Toxicol. 2017;106(pt A):324–355.

  • a Although aspartame contains 4 kcal/g, little is used, and therefore, it essentially provides no extra calories.51