TABLE 2

Summary of Pediatric Patients With MPAA Treated Conservatively

CaseReferenceAgeSexPathogenSymptomsSizeLocationUnderlying ConditionInvasive TherapyConservative TherapyCourse of Treatment
1Knowles et al, 2017416 y oldFemaleMethicillin-sensitive S aureusFever, leg cramps, and poor oral intakeNot describedBoth sidesTetralogy of Fallot (postrepaired with right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit), IE, septic pulmonary embolismsSurgical revision of the conduitAntibioticsBoth-sided aneurysms were stable
2Bozkurt et al, 200356 y oldFemaleNot detectedFever, malaise, chills, and tachycardiaMaximum 4 × 3.5 × 3 cmBoth sidesVSD, IELeft upper lobectomy, aneurysmsVancomycin for right-sided aneurysmRegression of the right-sided aneurysms
3Lertsapcharoen et al, 200269 y oldFemaleα-StreptococcusFever and dyspnea; hemoptysisNot describedBoth sidesPatent ductus arteriosus, IEDivision and suture of the patent ductus arteriosusPenicillin G and gentamycinRegression of the both aneurysms
4Toganel et al, 201472 mo oldMaleCandida lusitaniaeFever and hemoptysisMaximum diameter 4 cmBoth sidesEsophageal atresia, long-term central venous catheter, IESurgical removal of vegetation in right ventricular outflowNot described in detailNot described
5Walasangikar et al, 201687 y oldFemaleCandidaFever, chills, and coughNot describedRight sideVSD (postrepair)Not describedCephalosporinFailure