TABLE 1

Infant Sleep Practices, 29 States, PRAMS, 2016

Infant Sleep PracticeUnweighted Sample SizeWeighted % (95% CI)
Sleep position
 Back sleep positiona33 39778.0 (77.3–78.7)
Separate approved sleep surface
 Approved sleep surface and always or often separateb31 96231.8 (30.9–32.6)
 Approved sleep surface and always separatec31 96226.3 (25.5–27.0)
 Separate sleep surface33 370
  Always55.7 (54.8–56.5)
  Often18.7 (18.1–19.4)
  Sometimes9.9 (9.4–10.4)
  Rarely5.6 (5.2–6.0)
  Never10.1 (9.6–10.7)
 Type of sleep surface (could choose more than 1)
  In a crib, bassinet, or pack and play33 20887.8 (87.2–88.4)
  In an infant car seat or swing32 60650.7 (49.9–51.6)
  On a twin or larger mattress or bed32 54430.9 (30.1–31.7)
  On a couch or armchair32 4119.0 (8.5–9.5)
 Only slept in a crib, bassinet, or pack and play32 10034.9 (34.0–35.7)
Room-sharing without bed-sharing
 Room-sharing and always or often separated33 05157.1 (56.2–57.9)
 Room-sharing and always separatee33 05141.1 (40.3–42.0)
Sleep environment
 No soft objects or loose beddingf32 04442.4 (41.6–43.3)
 Type of soft objects or loose bedding
  With blanket32 46950.5 (49.6–51.3)
  With crib bumper pads32 32217.6 (16.9–18.3)
  With toys, cushions, or pillows, including nursing pillows32 4578.9 (8.4–9.4)
  • Data are from Alaska, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. CI, confidence interval.

  • a Defined as most often placing their infant to sleep on the back versus side, stomach, or combination.

  • b Defined as a composite of 5 items indicating how the infant usually slept in the past 2 wk: (1) alone in their own crib or bed (always or often versus sometimes, rarely, or never); (2) in a crib, bassinet, or pack and play; (3) not in a standard bed; (4) not on a couch or armchair; and (5) not in a car seat or swing (yes versus no).

  • c Defined as a composite of 5 items indicating how the infant usually slept in the past 2 wk: (1) alone in their own crib or bed (always versus often, sometimes, rarely, or never); (2) in a crib, bassinet, or pack and play; (3) not in a standard bed; (4) not on a couch or armchair; and (5) not in a car seat or swing (yes versus no).

  • d Defined as a composite of 2 items indicating that the infant usually slept in the past 2 wk: (1) alone in their own crib or bed (always or often versus sometimes, rarely, or never) and (2) in the same room as their mothers (yes versus no).

  • e Defined as a composite of 2 items indicating that the infant usually slept in the past 2 wk: (1) alone in their own crib or bed (always versus often, sometimes, rarely, or never) and (2) in the same room as their mothers (yes versus no).

  • f Defined as a composite of 3 items indicating that the infant usually slept in the past 2 wk without (1) blankets; (2) toys, cushions, or pillows; and (3) crib bumper pads (yes versus no).