TABLE 2

Usual Safe Infant Sleep Practices by Sociodemographic, Behavioral, and Health Care Characteristics, 29 States, PRAMS, 2016

Overall Distribution (n = 34 103)Usual Safe Infant Sleep Practice
Back Sleep Positiona (n = 33 397)Separate Approved Sleep Surfaceb (n = 31 962)Room-Sharing Without Bed-Sharingc (n = 33 051)No Soft Objects or Loose Beddingd (n = 32 044)
Weighted %Weighted % (95% CI)χ2PWeighted % (95% CI)χ2PWeighted % (95% CI)χ2PWeighted % (95% CI)χ2P
Total100.078.0 (77.3–78.7)31.8 (30.9–32.6)57.1 (56.2–57.9)42.4 (41.6–43.3)
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Maternal age, y<.001<.001.012<.001
  <204.969.3 (65.2–73.1)26.6 (22.8–30.7)62.4 (58.2–66.5)25.0 (21.4–29.1)
  20–2418.769.2 (67.2–71.2)26.0 (24.2–27.8)57.6 (55.5–59.6)30.9 (29.0–32.9)
  25–2929.377.4 (76.0–78.7)32.6 (31.1–34.1)57.5 (55.9–59.0)40.6 (39.0–42.2)
  30–3429.783.2 (82.0–84.3)34.5 (33.0–36.1)55.2 (53.6–56.7)49.6 (48.0–51.2)
  ≥3517.482.0 (80.4–83.5)33.3 (31.4–35.3)57.6 (55.6–59.6)50.7 (48.6–52.7)
 Maternal race or ethnicity<.001<.001<.001<.001
  Non-Hispanic white54.983.8 (82.9–84.6)35.3 (34.2–36.4)54.8 (53.7–55.9)45.7 (44.5–46.8)
  Non-Hispanic black13.062.3 (59.9–64.6)27.0 (25.0–29.2)57.1 (54.7–59.5)37.5 (35.1–39.8)
  Hispanic23.473.8 (71.9–75.5)29.6 (27.7–31.6)64.0 (62.0–66.0)40.2 (38.2–42.3)
  Non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native0.782.2 (79.3–84.8)23.4 (20.4–26.8)50.5 (46.3–54.8)25.6 (22.4–29.1)
  Non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander6.075.5 (72.5–78.2)20.6 (17.9–23.5)53.7 (50.2–57.1)33.3 (29.9–36.8)
  Non-Hispanic multiple races2.078.0 (73.4–82.0)24.2 (19.6–29.6)54.3 (48.9–59.6)39.1 (33.7–44.7)
 Maternal education<.001<.0010.001<.001
  Less than high school13.269.0 (66.5–71.4)29.4 (27.0–31.9)65.0 (62.4–67.5)42.2 (39.6–44.9)
  High school diploma or GED24.172.9 (71.2–74.5)28.6 (26.9–30.3)62.2 (60.3–64.0)31.6 (29.8–33.4)
  Some college or associate’s degree26.475.9 (74.5–77.3)29.2 (27.7–30.7)56.1 (54.5–57.8)35.7 (34.1–37.3)
  Bachelor’s degree or higher36.286.2 (85.2–87.2)36.5 (35.2–37.9)51.6 (50.2–53.0)54.4 (53.0–55.8)
 Marital status<.001<.001<.001<.001
  Married62.481.9 (81.0–82.7)34.2 (33.2–35.2)55.4 (54.3–56.5)47.5 (46.4–48.6)
  Unmarried37.671.6 (70.2–72.9)27.7 (26.4–29.0)59.9 (58.5–61.4)34.0 (32.6–35.4)
 Gestational age at delivery, wk.398.106<.001.395
  <342.076.8 (73.9–79.4)34.5 (31.5–37.7)66.5 (63.3–69.7)44.8 (41.4–48.2)
  34–366.576.7 (74.0–79.2)33.6 (30.7–36.5)60.6 (57.7–63.5)42.1 (39.2–45.1)
  ≥3791.578.1 (77.4–78.9)31.6 (30.7–32.5)56.6 (55.7–57.5)42.4 (41.5–43.3)
Behavioral characteristics
 Current breastfeeding<.001<.001<.001<.001
  No46.575.2 (74.1–76.3)33.7 (32.5–34.9)61.3 (60.0–62.6)37.5 (36.2–38.8)
  Yes53.580.5 (79.5–81.4)30.1 (29.0–31.2)53.3 (52.1–54.5)46.8 (45.6–48.0)
 Current maternal smoking.111<.001.011<.001
  No89.278.2 (77.5–79.0)32.5 (31.6–33.4)56.6 (55.7–57.6)43.8 (42.8–44.7)
  Yes10.876.3 (74.0–78.5)25.6 (23.4–27.9)60.2 (57.6–62.7)31.2 (28.8–33.7)
Health care characteristics
 WIC participation during pregnancy<.001<.001<.001<.001
  No62.182.0 (81.1–82.8)33.8 (32.7–34.8)53.5 (52.4–54.6)46.9 (45.8–48.0)
  Yes37.971.5 (70.2–72.8)28.3 (27.0–29.7)62.8 (61.4–64.2)35.2 (33.8–36.6)
 Timing of prenatal care initiation<.001<.001.002<.001
  First Trimester86.279.4 (78.6–80.1)32.9 (32.0–33.8)56.5 (55.6–57.4)43.9 (42.9–44.8)
  Late or no prenatal care13.870.2 (67.8–72.5)24.8 (22.7–27.1)60.7 (58.1–63.2)33.4 (30.9–35.9)
 Insurance coverage at delivery<.001<.001<.001<.001
  Private54.783.9 (83.1–84.8)35.0 (33.9–36.1)52.5 (51.4–53.6)48.3 (47.2–49.5)
  Medicaid41.771.5 (70.3–72.8)28.1 (26.9–29.4)63.2 (61.9–64.6)34.3 (32.9–35.7)
  Uninsured3.666.8 (61.2–71.9)26.6 (21.9–31.9)56.1 (50.5–61.6)40.9 (35.4–46.7)
  • Data are from Alaska, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. CI, confidence interval; GED, general equivalency diploma; —, not applicable.

  • a Defined as most often placing their infant to sleep on the back versus side, stomach, or combination.

  • b Defined as a composite of 5 items indicating how the infant usually slept in the past 2 wk: (1) alone in their own crib or bed (always or often versus sometimes, rarely, or never); (2) in a crib, bassinet, or pack and play; (3) not in a standard bed; (4) not in a couch or armchair; and (5) not in car seat or swing (yes versus no).

  • c Defined as a composite of 2 items indicating that the infant usually slept in the past 2 wk: (1) alone in their own crib or bed (always or often versus sometimes, rarely, or never) and (2) in the same room as their mothers (yes versus no).

  • d Defined as a composite of 3 items indicating that the infant usually slept in the past 2 wk without (1) blankets; (2) toys, cushions, or pillows; and (3) crib bumper pads (yes versus no).