TABLE 1

Sample Characteristics and Comparison of Characteristics by Frequency of Hookah Use in Last 12 Months

Full Sample, N = 5540, Weighted %No Hookah Use, n = 4502, Weighted %Hookah Use, n = 1038, Weighted %P
Gender<.001
 Male48.679.820.2
 Female51.484.016.0
Age, y.09
 <1845.683.116.9
 ≥1854.481.118.9
Racea<.0001
 White62.679.920.1
 Black9.595.24.8
 Hispanic13.182.018.0
Population density<.0001
 Non-MSA20.689.610.4
 Small MSA50.780.319.7
 Large MSA28.779.620.4
Religiositya<.0001
 Low31.279.820.2
 Moderate20.082.317.7
 High24.490.29.8
Family structure.39
 0 parents5.180.219.8
 1 parent27.081.019.0
 2 parents67.982.517.5
Parent education.22
 Low29.683.616.4
 Moderate28.881.718.3
 High41.681.118.9
Weekly income from job<.0001
 ≤$1047.685.914.1
 $11–$5011.982.517.5
 ≥$5140.577.222.8
Weekly income from other source<.001
 ≤$1056.784.215.8
 $11–$5033.979.120.9
 ≥$519.479.220.8
Cigarette smoking<.0001
 Never smoked59.893.76.3
 Smoked once or twice19.174.825.2
 Smoked regularly in the past4.763.936.1
 Smoke occasionally9.657.142.9
 Smoke regularly6.847.252.8
Lifetime alcohol use<.0001
 No29.297.82.2
 Yes70.875.524.5
Lifetime marijuana use<.0001
 No54.896.13.9
 Yes45.264.935.1
Lifetime use of other illicit substances<.0001
 No76.389.011.0
 Yes23.759.540.5
  • χ2s are design-based to account for the complex sampling design. MSA, metropolitan statistical area.

  • a Valid percentages are presented for race and religiosity because we allowed data to be missing for these variables in our analyses (missing data indicators were included in models). Data are weighted, so percentages may not add up to exactly 100%.