TABLE 3

HRs for ADHD in Children According to Parental Smoking During Pregnancy, Using Children of Nonsmoking Parents as Reference

MotherFather
SmokerNonsmoker
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
Smoker1.83 (1.60 to 2.10)1.63 (1.36 to 1.94)
Nicotine replacement user1.28 (0.57 to 2.89)2.28 (1.48 to 3.51)
Smoking quitter1.70 (1.38 to 2.10)1.08 (0.85 to 1.36)
Nonsmoker1.29 (1.14 to 1.47)Reference
  • Cox regression, adjusted for maternal age, parity, alcohol intake during pregnancy, parental socioeconomic status, parental psychopathology, and child’s gender.